As you know, many medicinesare toxic to the body. It all depends on what dosage to use this or that drug. There are also substances that are poisons. Their use is very dangerous. Nevertheless, some of them are used in medicine. For example, drugs created on the basis of bee and snake venom, strychnine. The dose of such medicines must be strictly observed. After all, if you exceed the amount of active substance, you can cause not only severe poisoning, but also a lethal outcome. An example is the strychnine drug. The poison contained in this substance is very toxic to the human body and animals. But when used in small amounts, it has a curative effect.
Strychnine - what is it?
This substance is of vegetable origin. It is used not only for medical purposes, but also as a poison for rodents. Given the high toxicity, people who are prescribed drugs based on this substance, ask: strychnine - what is it? It is known that this remedy was allocated as far back as 1818. Get it by laboratory. Where is the strychnine contained and to what chemicals? This agent is a natural indole alkaloid. It is found in the seeds of the plant of chilibiha. They are also called "vomit". Chilibuha grows in the tropical climate of Africa and Asia. In addition to strychnine, the seeds contain other alkaloids. For example, the substance brucine. For medical purposes in laboratory conditions, strychnine nitrate is prepared, in other words - nitric acid salt. In large doses, the alkaloids contained in the seeds of chilibu are considered poisons. They have a high degree of toxicity and are deadly to humans.
The effect of strychnine on the body
Strychnine substance - what is it? Some data on the impact of this tool can be found in literary works. Among them - the novels of famous classics of Jack London, Agatha Christie. In these works, heroes die due to the effects of this poison. In addition, the English writer Herbert Wells describes in one of his stories a biological stimulant, through which a person feels a surge of energy. It's about strychnine. In fact, this substance has a similar property. This action strychnine due to the fact that it can block some neurotransmitters. Among them, glycine is a substance that inhibits impulses in the spinal cord. Due to this effect, strychnine is considered to be an agent that excites the nervous system.
At the use of small doses of the given substance in the organism the following processes occur:
- Stimulation of the sensory organs. Due to this, functions such as sense of smell, hearing, touch, taste and vision are enhanced.
- Excitation of skeletal muscles and myocardium.
- Strengthening metabolic processes in the body.
- Excitation of the nervous system, including the respiratory and vasomotor center.
Application of strychnine in pharmacology
Taking into account the effect of strychnine on the nervous systemit is used in medicine. Nevertheless, the medicines that contain this poison are used only in cases of emergency. Medicinal preparations have in their composition nitrate strychnine. It practically does not dissolve in cold water and ether. Nitrate is a white powder, consisting of crystals. Medications containing this substance are classified as first class drugs, that is, they are especially dangerous drugs. Given its effects, strychnine is used for diseases accompanied by inhibition of nerve impulses. The main branch of medicine, in which such drugs are used, is neurology. In addition to pharmacology, strychnine is used as a poison for fighting rodents - mice and rats. Previously, the substance was used only for deratization.
What preparations contain strychnine
So, "strychnine" - what is it and in whatDoes it contain medicines? Preparations that have this poison in their composition belong to the group of stimulants of the central nervous system. In pharmacological practice, there are 2 medicines containing strychnine. These include:
- Tincture of chilibigh. It is a brown liquid havingbitter taste. Strict observance of the following ratio is necessary: 16 grams of dry matter (chilibuha extract) per 1 liter of 70% alcohol solution. This drug contains not only strychnine. The composition of the drug is represented by other alkaloids, including brucine. The tincture contains 0.25% of the active ingredient.
- Dry extract of the plant. It is also called the drug of the vomit. It is a brown powder. It has no smell. For consumption, the powder is dissolved in water. At the same time, the ratio 1/10 is observed. The powder contains about 16% of the alkaloids of chilibukha - strychnine and brucine.
These medicines do not have commercial names. Used in the form of a solution and tablets.
Preparations containing strychnine: instructions for use
Considering that strychnine is particularly dangerouspoison, follow the instructions for use is very important. In no case should you exceed the therapeutic dose of the medication! Also, attention should be paid to the contraindications to the use of preparations containing strychnine. Such medicines can not be used by children under 2 years of age, pregnant and lactating women. Prescribe the drug can only be the attending physician. So, medications containing strychnine: instructions for use.
- Oral administration of the drug. In most cases, drugs consumeinside. To do this, use alcoholic infusion of chilibuks and tablets (contain a dry extract). Depending on the severity of the symptoms, age and weight of the patient. Adults recommend a dose of 0.5 to 1 mg 2-3 times a day. If the drug form of the drug is an alcohol tincture, then 3-10 drops are prescribed (in 1 dose). The maximum dose for adults is 5 mg per day. Children the amount of active substance is selected individually, depending on the body weight. A single dose is from 0.1 to 0.5 mg.
- Subcutaneous administration of medication. A 0.1% solution of strychnine is used. The daily dose is 1 ml (1 ampoule) of the drug.
Indication for strychnine application
Despite the effectiveness of medications that haveits composition strychnine, they are appointed in rare cases. Most doctors recommend patients less dangerous drugs. Nevertheless, there are cases when the use of strychnine is necessary. There are the following indications for the use of such medicines:
- Heavy neurological disorders. Among them - paralysis and paresis of limbs after a stroke.
- Lack of appetite. Given that strychnine nitrate has a pronounced bitter taste, it stimulates the desire to eat.
- Violation of acuity of hearing and sight. In this case, drugs are prescribed only in those cases when there are functional changes in the work of the sensory organs.
- Impotence. Currently, preparations containing strychnine, are practically not used for erectile dysfunction.
- Chronic alcoholism, not amenable to treatment by other means.
Contraindications to the use of strychnine
Preparations containing strychnine are contraindicatedpeople suffering from cardiovascular diseases (angina, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis) and the respiratory system (bronchial asthma, COPD). Also, they can not be used for thyroid pathologies, liver and kidney failure. It is strictly forbidden to prescribe such medications during pregnancy, lactation, children under 2 years of age, and people who have a history of convulsive syndrome.
Symptoms of strychnine poisoning
An extremely dangerous condition is considered poisoningstrychnine. The symptoms are similar to the clinical picture of tetanus. There are the following signs of poisoning: photophobia, respiratory depression, convulsions, spasm of masticatory muscles, violation of swallowing. A lethal dose of strychnine is 1 mg per kg of body weight.