Among the numerous bird kingdom there isa very interesting species, whose representatives are distinguished by their dislike for flying. This is very surprising, because the birds are created for the sky. Nature has awarded them with wings, but this bird does not practically rise into the air. The name of the bird is a corncrake (see photo below), it is also called a dergator.
Evenings from the meadows are heard unusualsounds, they remind me of something that croaks frogs. Such a crack is produced by the dervishes, because of fearfulness they are difficult to see, but to hear easily. About how the corncrake looks, where it lives, how it survives in the wild, this article will be discussed.
The size of the corncrake, the photo of which you alreadyhad time to look, resembles a small, just-fledged chicken weighing 125-155 g. Only the old obese Dergachi gain weight more. The body of the bird visually seems flattened from the sides, the tail is rather short, the length of the wing is 14-16 cm, the beak is short (2-2.2 cm), wide at the base.
Above, the color of feathers is mottled, reddish-brown. The center of the pen is blackish, the end is grayish. Boka and abdomen ohristo-white, with reddish stripes. Chest, craw and neck of gray color. The iris is red-brown or nut brown. In a word, the bird is corncracked, it is also a duck-bell, looks modestly and does not stand out in its brightness.
Dermatists nest in the territory of Eurasia, fromFrance and Britain in the west to South Yakutia in the east, from the northern taiga to semi-arid lands. The area of these birds is captured by the Caucasian foothills. For wintering, the corncrake bird travels to the warm regions of South-East Africa.
Settling dergaches prefer in the dry andfloodplain meadows, among perennial grasses, in uncultivated overgrown gardens, on forest felling, in semi-dry areas of swamps. Also suitable for birds are the gardens and grain fields. They love to have water alongside, but they do not tolerate excessive humidity in their territories.
Korostel: sounds, screams
Talking about the bird corncracker, it is worth noting,that its Old Russian name "dergach" came from a jerking, abrupt scream of the feathered data. Sounds of birds are corncracked in the open area can be heard even for a kilometer. Especially in this loud "singing" males differ, females behave more modestly.
Korostel, whose sounds are audible at night, intwilight or at dawn, especially differs during the mating season. His loud, as if twitching cry "gik-gik, gik-gik, gik-gik ..." male tries to attract the attention of females and at the same time challenges competitors.
During his marriage "songs", the corncrake is soenters into the excitement that does not hear, if you approach him even too close. It is necessary only to walk during the "song verses", when the bird screams. In such moments she simply deafens herself with her own sounds. During the shouting, the jerk pulls the neck forward, turning in different directions.
If the bird is scared or feels itdanger, from her throat will come an unusually strong and sharp cry, like the chirring of magpies. Also, the corncrake can surprise us with another sound, a repetitive "I". It is precisely with their unusual chants that the corncrake is different from other birds, the description of its cries and sounds is a confirmation of this.
The dergach (bird) prefers to choose wet meadows with high grass. Most often these birds can be found on the fields sown with cereals.
Korostel refers to the night residents alone. If weather conditions allow, shrewd, tireless birds all night lead an active lifestyle and only early in the morning, with the sunrise, go to rest.
It is very difficult to see the dermatologist in the grass, in the air itrises only when absolutely necessary. So this bird is easier to hear than to consider. Running feathery, bending the front of the body and head to the ground so that the tail is higher. While moving, the bird nods all the time to look around, it sometimes straightens and stretches its neck for the entire length. When such a short-term inspection takes place, the derrick issues a special cry, as if to encourage himself and assuring that there is no danger.
If the danger is not avoided, the bird is corrupted infirst tries to escape by flight. The runner from this bird is unsurpassed, his narrow body facilitates rapid movement in high dense grass. When you can not escape, the bird has to fly. She does this somewhat awkwardly and slowly. In flight, her legs are lowered down, this action lasts only for a short time, after a few meters the dermatologist sits down in the grass and continues to save himself more comfortable for himself on the ground.
Male dergacha can be called a skilful boyfriendand an experienced ladies' man. Although it will be fair to notice that while he takes care of one female, he does not spend on other time. From the above it becomes clear that the corncobs are consistently polygamous.
The marriage period runs from April to July. As already mentioned earlier, during bird weddings males become very loud. In addition to "songs", they also danced the hearts of women by dancing. When a female enters the field of view of a male, he begins to perform a mating dance, during which the red spots on the wings look profitable. But this is not the limit of the efforts of the "gentleman", he in the heat of passion can even give his feathered ladies "nice" gifts in the form of snails and worms. If the male does not reach such generosity, the female herself can demand a treat from him.
For one season male can mate with 2-3females, on average there are two girls per boy. His duties do not include building a nest, hatching eggs and caring for the offspring. As soon as the female begins to lay eggs, the male leaves in search of another chosen one.
Future feathered mother arranges her nestamong small shrubs or among dense grass. First she digs a shallow hole, then lays the bottom with moss, the stalk of sedge and cereals. In one masonry there are from 7 to 12 eggs. Nasizhivaet their female on their own, without the help of a negligent dad.
Cultivation of offspring
Dergach (bird) sits on eggs for threeweeks, then from them the nestlings appear. They are covered with a brown-black fuzz. Absolutely helpless babies can not be named, because almost immediately after the fluff has dried, the nestlings boldly leave the nest and accompany their mother.
The first 3-4 days of life the bird corn-bream feeds itscubs from the beak. When the kids turn 2 weeks old, they become completely independent, they can get their own food. At the age of one month, young birds begin to make their first flights and leave the care of their mother.
Female dermah, inhabiting the territory of WesternEurope, can make two laying eggs for the summer and bring out two broods of chicks, whereas feathered inhabitants of eastern territories because of more severe climatic conditions, the second clutch is very rarely done.
Bird corncrake does not belong to vegetarians, itwith pleasure eats both plant food, and food of animal origin. Given the fact that the derguchi prefers to live in fertile areas, he does not have problems with the extraction of food. For example, having settled near the bread field, the bird will always be filled with grain and insects.
In the cornmeal diet includes seeds, young shoots of plants. The menu is complemented by small insects, centipedes, small snails, earthworms.
Korostel is a very reserved and cautious bird,which is hidden from human eyes. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine the number of populations of dergach. One can only assume that due to the increase in the number of ecologically clean farms, it is impossible to attribute to disappearing species of these birds.
It is, of course, worth noting that, in comparison withpast years, the number of corncrews is decreasing. Wet meadows slowly but surely disappear from the landscape, as a result, the population of dermatics, which mostly live in such territories, is decreasing.