Gallstone disease in recent years strongly"younger". One of the solutions to this problem and, perhaps, the most common is the removal of the gallbladder. The consequences of removal for the organism we will consider in this article.
Hepatocytes (liver cells) produce bile,which accumulates in the gallbladder. From there, bile enters the 12-colon, helping the process of digestion after eating. This acid-containing secret of hepatocytes also plays a bactericidal role and fights harmful microorganisms accidentally trapped in the body.
Causes of stone formation
Stones in the gallbladder can be formed byvarious reasons. But the main all the same is a violation of metabolic processes in the body. This may be due to excess weight or obesity, especially if the fatty degeneration of the liver develops. Admission of a large number of drugs, including hormonal contraceptives, increases the risk of calculous (with the formation of stones) cholecystitis.
Disturbances in nutrition can also provokethis ailment. Such disorders can be associated with the intake of foods high in cholesterol (fatty meat, kidneys, brains, butter, eggs), and the use of highly mineralized water for a long time and low-calorie diets.
Anatomical features of the bile structureBubble (kinks and bends) can also provoke calculous cholecystitis. It is dangerous for possible complications, for example, blockage of the bile ducts. The removal of the gallbladder can solve the problem. The consequences of the removal, as a rule, do not pose a danger provided that the operation is carried out on time and by highly qualified specialists.
Indications for operation
The main indications for removal of the gallbladder are usually:
- danger of blockage of the bile ducts;
- inflammatory processes in the gallbladder;
- chronic cholecystitis, not amenable to conservative treatment.
In such cases it is advisable to conductremoval of the gallbladder. The consequences of deletion can not be predicted in advance. But the undesirable consequences that lead to undesirable operation in time lead to a minimum. Unfortunately, the operation itself does not eliminate the causes of bile formation disorders. And after cholecystectomy, it will take some more time for the organism to adapt itself to working harmoniously in the absence of this organ.
If the patient is constantly disturbed by exacerbationschronic cholecystitis, then after surgery, his condition will improve. Functions of the removed gallbladder will be taken by nearby organs. But it will not happen immediately. It will take several months to rebuild the body.
Gallbladder Removal: Effects of Removal
Cholecystectomy can be performedlaparoscopic or cavity method. In cases where the patient has a fact of a strong infection or the presence of large stones that can not be removed in any other way, a hollow operation is performed - removal of the gallbladder. Laparoscopy in the remaining uncomplicated cases is most relevant.
From the hospital the patient can already be released home on the 2nd-4th day. Then comes the rehabilitation period. In uncomplicated cholecystectomy, the patient is on a sick-list for a month.
What happens after cholecystectomy?
Bile after removal of the gallbladder into the intestine comes constantly, it has nowhere to accumulate, and it becomes more fluid. This introduces some changes in the work of the intestine:
- Liquid bile worse copes with harmful microorganisms. They can multiply and cause indigestion.
- The absence of the gallbladder leads to the fact that the bile acids constantly irritate the mucosa of the duodenum. This fact can cause inflammation of it and the development of duodenitis.
- This disrupts the motor activity of the intestine, and the food masses can be backed into the stomach and esophagus.
- Such a process can lead to the development of gastritis, esophagitis, colitis or enteritis.
Try to avoid all these troubleswill help properly chosen diet. The physical load, too, will have to be reduced for a while. From the side of the digestive system, all kinds of disturbances are possible. Disorders of the intestine or, conversely, constipation, swelling are possible. It should not be frightened. These are temporary phenomena.
Diet after surgery
During the first day after the operation, it is allowed to drink only small sips of non-carbonated water, but not more than half a liter. During the following 7 days, the patient's diet includes:
- low-fat boiled meat (beef, chicken breast without skin) in a crushed form;
- soups on vegetable broth;
- oatmeal or buckwheat porridge on the water;
- fresh sour-milk products (yoghurt, kefir, fat-free cottage cheese);
- baked bananas and apples.
For the period of rehabilitation, products are prohibited:
- all fried foods;
- sharp and salty;
- fish (even boiled);
- strong tea or coffee;
- any alcohol;
- bakery products.
Further, within the first two months afterperformed surgery, you must adhere to a sparing diet. More it is known as diet number 5. You can use the following products in a crushed or wiped form:
- lean meat boiled or steamed;
- sea white fish;
- boiled egg (you can omelet cooked in the oven);
- stewed or boiled vegetables (pumpkin, zucchini, cauliflower, carrots, potatoes);
- fruit, berries and mashed potatoes from them, baked apples;
- Freshly squeezed juices diluted with water;
- broth of dogrose;
- tea not strong;
- rye croutons.
Products that increase gas formation (peas, white cabbage and red cabbage, etc.) are excluded. After 2-3 months you can add to the diet:
- dishes from cereals (rice, pearl barley, millet, etc.);
- cottage cheese, hard sorts of cheese (ragged);
- honey, jam (not more than 30 grams per day);
- baking only yesterday (fresh baking is still prohibited).
In the next two years, completely eliminate chocolate, ice cream, cakes, fresh buns. Eating small meals 5-6 times a day.
Under the ban are any drinks that contain alcohol (even in small amounts). This can trigger an attack of acute pancreatitis.
Medication after surgery
After removal of the gallbladder, treatmentmedicines require minimal. If inflammatory processes are found in the gallbladder, antibiotics are prescribed after the operation. Antibacterial therapy is performed in a hospital for the first three days. This is done to prevent the development of postoperative complications.
If the patient complains of pain, there may beanalgesic agents are prescribed. They are used only for the first 2-3 days. Then you can go to spasmolytics "Drotaverin", "No-shpa", "Buskopan". These drugs are usually taken in tablet form for no more than 10 days.
After removal of the gallbladder, treatment at homeconditions can be continued. To improve the lithogenicity of bile, preparations containing ursodeoxycholic acid are used, which makes it possible to reduce the possible microcholithiasis (the formation of microscopic concrements up to 0.1 cm in size). It can be a drug "Ursofalk". It is used in the form of a suspension or capsules. Reception of this drug is prolonged - from 6 months to 2 years.
Unfortunately, cholecystectomy does not give a full guarantee of preventing further formation of stones, since the production of bile with increased lithogenicity (the ability to form stones) does not cease.
Removal of the gallbladder: the cost of the operation
This operation can be carried out asfree, and for a fee. Free of charge operate on a medical policy in public medical institutions. A free operation is conducted by highly qualified specialists. Usually this is a planned operation. In an emergency, it is carried out only if the patient's condition has deteriorated sharply and there is a threat of serious complications or a danger to life.
Paid medical centers and clinics canconduct a cholecystectomy for a certain price. In different clinics the prices for such an operation can range from 18 thousand rubles to 100. Everything depends on the regional location of the clinic and its prestige. Also, the cost of the operation in such centers is influenced by the fact who will perform the operation - it will be an ordinary surgeon or doctor of medical sciences.