Hormones are in the human body insmall amounts, but at the same time have a significant impact on its functioning. Prolactin, whose norm depends on the sex of a person, is produced in the pituitary gland, and its target organ is the mammary gland. When its amount exceeds the required, there is infertility and sexual problems.
The main functions of prolactin are breast augmentationgirls at puberty, increase in its size during pregnancy and provide lactation after it. The analysis on this hormone is necessary to hand over at allocation from nipples, sterility or barrenness, an irregular cycle, absence of menstruation at women.
With augmentation of the breast, a decrease in potency and libido in men, it is also advisable to check its level. Visual impairment and headaches in both sexes is the reason to determine the concentration of the hormone.
Prolactin, whose norm is much higher inpregnant and lactating women, can increase with various diseases, taking certain medications and a number of other reasons. The level of the hormone depends on the sleep and time of the day, so it is recommended to take it between 8 and 10 o'clock in the morning, wake up 3 hours before that.
The concentration of prolactin in the blood rendersthe influence of nipple stimulation and orgasm, so a day before the visit to the laboratory, sex should be excluded. The same number will have to refrain from physical exertion, thermal procedures, alcohol intake and stress, which is especially reflected in the results of the analysis. One hour before the study, you can not smoke.
In addition, in women, the level of the hormone is changed byduring the cycle, so the time of delivery should be clarified by the doctor. However, if there are no special instructions, the analysis is performed after 5 and 8 days from the beginning of menstruation.
So, Prolactin is the norm for women (ng / ml):
- non-pregnant - 5-24;
- pregnant women - 35-387.
In men, the amount of the hormone should be between 4-16 ng / ml. However, it should be borne in mind that the norms depend on the chosen laboratory and are indicated in the form with the result.
Prolactin is increased in the following diseases:
- PCOS, which is accompanied by infertility, a violation of the cycle, excessive hair growth;
- anorexia (fear of gaining weight, strong weight loss, refusal to eat);
- hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid hormone production, manifested by drowsiness, impaired cycle, decreased appetite, dry skin, bags under the eyes, depression);
- a pituitary tumor - prolactinoma, which produces an excessive amount of the hormone;
- liver, kidney disease;
- tumors of the hypothalamus.
Prolactin, whose norm is 10 times smaller, is usuallyincreases to 200 ng / ml with a pituitary tumor. This disease is accompanied by the absence of menstruation, infertility, overweight, the allocation of milk outside of pregnancy and lactation, nausea, headaches, vision impairment. Prolactinoma is diagnosed using computed tomography.
To identify hypothyroidism, it is necessary to checkhormones shchitovidki: 3, 4 and TTG. The level of prolactin increases with the use of hormonal contraceptives, estrogen, tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamines, reserpine, verapamil, cimetidine and other drugs.
Increased hormone content, as a rule,requires correction, because it leads to a violation of the cycle and infertility in women, as well as a decrease in potency and libido in men. Therapy is aimed at eliminating the causes of its increased concentration.
Low prolactin levels usually do not require treatment, but can indicate the following conditions and diseases:
- long-term administration of dopamine, levodopa and a number of other drugs;
- radiotherapy of pituitary neoplasms, as well as disruption of his work due to head trauma;
- tumors and tuberculosis of the pituitary gland.
So, we answered the question: "Prolactin, what is it and what is its norm in the human body?". It was found out that the increased amount of the hormone negatively affects the fertile and sexual function of both sexes and requires correction. Determined, under what diseases of prolactin, the rate of which is greater during pregnancy and lactation, exceeds the permissible value.