Mexico, the form of government, state andwhose territorial structure will be examined by us, is a country that lies on the northern, most wide section of the isthmus, extending south of the border of the United States and connecting the two Americas: the North and the South.
Its area is 1958 thousand square meters. km. Of these, 5.4 thousand square meters. km falls on the islands. The Mexican United States on the west coast is washed by the waters of the Gulf of California and the Pacific, and in the east by the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The country borders on the south with Belize and Guatemala. Mexico is a state that is the cradle of the civilizations of the New World. Today it will live about a fifth of the population of Latin America.
The most important facts from the history of Mexico
Before to tell about what formboard in Mexico, we suggest first to get acquainted with the main events of its history, which influenced the formation of the territorial-state system. The territory of Mexico has long been inhabited by Indian tribes (Olmec, Toltec, Maya, Aztec, etc.), which reached a fairly high level of development. In the period from 16 to the beginning of the 19th century, this country was a colony of Spain. In 1821 she gained independence. As a result of what happened in 1910-17. bourgeois-democratic revolution, the foundations of the modern social and political structure of the state were created. All these events influenced the form of government in Mexico today. Today this state is an agrarian-industrial country. Capitalism in it is developed at an average level.
The form of government in Mexico isConstitution. In the country in all periods of history there were only 3 main laws. Adopted in 1824, the Constitution established a federal system. The form of government in Mexico has remained unchanged to this day. The US federal system was taken as a model. In 1857 the following constitution was adopted. She granted many civil and political rights. The Constitution in force today was adopted on February 5, 1917.
This law has preserved the democratic and liberalcharacter, as well as an essential part of the 1857 law. However, it also has revolutionary provisions. The Constitution of 1917 included the right to work, the principles of agrarian reform, social justice, anti-clericalism and nationalism. According to this document, officials representing all the main political organizations of the country were deprived of the right to be elected for a second term. The Constitution of 1917 significantly strengthened the executive in a country like Mexico. Its form of government is a presidential republic. Here is a liberal political regime, combining elements of bureaucratic authoritarianism and democracy.
In general, the legal system of such a state asMexico, refers to the Romano-Germanic system of law. She is part of her Latin American group, quite apart. The legal system of Mexico was formed, like many other countries of this group, on the basis of the following four legal cultures: Spanish, Indian, Anglo-American and French.
History of Legal System Development
The initial basis of it is the socionormative systemIndians, the indigenous population of the state. It is still partially preserved, especially in the field of activities and organization of rural communities. The colonialists of Spain had to recognize them and sanction the Indian legal and legal norms. At the same time, the colonial activity, actively pursued by the Spaniards, led to the establishment of the Spanish legal culture in Mexico. It is based on the traditions of Roman legal thinking and Roman law.
Mexico, having achieved independence in 1821, asand other countries of the region, began to create its own legal system. It was based on the legislation of bourgeois France, and not on semi-feudal Spain. French lawyers and educators put forward the idea of a coherent system of law, which was consonant with the moods of the Mexican bourgeoisie. The form of government in Mexico is currently based on these norms.
If the model for Mexican private lawAfter receiving the country's independence became the legislation of Europe, then for public law - the US Constitution. Among the ideas adopted under the influence of North American constitutionalism is the separation of powers, federalism, the system of checks and balances of presidential power, etc. All these principles, previously tested in the United States, were reflected in the first Mexican constitutions, and then developed in the current basic law 1917, which indicates the form of government in Mexico at present.
System of laws
Like the right of all other Latin Americancountries, the Mexican is well codified. Almost all major branches of private and public law adopted separate codes. Their system is complemented on an increasing scale by current legislation.
As for the laws, they are divided into ordinaryand organic, that is, those that are adopted under the direct order of the Constitution. The federal form of government in Mexico suggests that the states have rather large powers in the field of legislation. They accept their civil procedural, civil, criminal procedural and criminal codes, as well as financial and administrative legislation. The conflict norm, fixed in Mexico by the Constitution of 1917, provides an important position. It consists in the fact that the contradiction between the law of the federation and the state entails the application of the norm of federal legislation. An increasingly important role among law sources in Mexico over the past decades is played by (by both state and federal) by-laws.
Municipal acts are the lowest level of the system. The form of government in Mexico in the 20th century implies that municipalities, according to the Constitution, must issue regulations on proper management and procedures, in accordance with the norms adopted by the state legislatures. In addition, they must issue circulars, administrative regulations, as well as general provisions relevant to their competence.
The head of the executive branch is the President ina country such as Mexico. The form of government in this state is federal. Political power is in fact in the hands of the national government in Mexico City. The president is elected with the help of universal direct voting for a period of 6 years. The candidate must be at least 35 years old, he must live in the country for a year before the election, and also be born Mexican. In the event of the death of the incumbent, new elections are appointed. They can also take place because of the inability of the head of state to perform duties during the first two years of the presidential term.
Today, the President of Mexico is Enrique PeñaNieto (photo above). He was elected in 2012. The President was born in 1966, on July 20, that is, now he is 49 years old. He is the successor of Felipe Calderon. In the election, the Mexican president scored about 37% of the vote. Before taking such a responsible position, he was the governor of Mexico City for 6 years (from 2005 to 2011), and even earlier (2003-04) was a member of the local parliament. The current president represents the Institutional Revolutionary Party.
The powers of the president
The head of the executive branch has manyauthority. He has the right to legislative initiative, he can appoint and dismiss senior civil servants, including governors of states, territories, federal districts. The president promulgates laws. In addition, he commands the armed forces.
President - the core figure in the mechanismThe government that exercises board in Mexico. He belongs, among others, and the right of veto. However, it was not distributed in this state, since in the system of President-Congress communications, which was actually established, the former can control the entire legislative process, although the form of the state government of Mexico does not imply this. The powers of the president include the introduction of a state of emergency in the country, the suspension of various constitutional guarantees, and he can interfere in the internal affairs of the Mexican states. In cases specified in the Constitution, he has the right to issue decrees that have the force of law. He can also exercise this right in accordance with the powers given to him by Congress.
Implementation of executive power by the presidentoccurs through the federal administration. It operates on the basis of the Organic Law promulgated by Congress. The federal administration includes ministries headed by ministers (state secretaries), as well as administrative departments.
What else to tell, revealing the theme "Form"All orders, decisions, decrees and resolutions of the President must be signed by the relevant head of the administrative department or by the secretary of state to which this matter belongs, otherwise they are not subject to execution." The heads of administrative departments and state secretaries at the opening of the session The Congress is to submit to the President a report on the cases in its departments. The Cabinet is represented by 19 state departments: foreign affairs, internal affairs, the Navy, defense, energy and mining, finance, communications and transport, agriculture and water resources, labor and social security, education, agrarian reform, presidential administration, tourism, health, justice, fisheries, and control -financial management.
We talked about the executive branch. You also learned how the forms of government and government in Mexico changed throughout history. Let us now turn to the consideration of the legislative power in this country.
It is vested with, according to the Constitution, the Nationala congress consisting of two chambers. The lower, or Chamber of Deputies (pictured above), is represented by 500 members. Deputies are elected for a term of 3 years in accordance with universal suffrage. From every 250 thousand people or a part thereof, exceeding 125 thousand, there is one deputy each. 300 of them (all of them, as we have already said, 500) are selected in single-mandate constituencies, the other 200 - on the principle of proportional representation.
The photo above shows the Senate building,located in the capital, Mexico City. The Senate is the Upper Chamber. It is represented by 128 members. They are selected by 4 from each state, as well as the federal metropolitan area. Elections take place through direct universal suffrage. Deputies are given powers for a period of 6 years. Every six years there is a complete rotation of the Senate deputies in a country like Mexico, whose republican form of government implies that government bodies should be elected or appointed for a certain period of time.
After the 1993 reform, opposition partiesnot less than a quarter of all seats in the Senate. Every year, a congress is held for the session. It is held during the period from September 1 to December 31. Legislative powers during the break in the activities of Parliament belong to a standing commission. Both chambers take part in her appointment.
State form of government in Mexicoimplies that, according to the Constitution, re-elections to any state posts are prohibited, including both chambers of Congress. In Mexico in 1993 adopted an amendment to the Constitution. According to her, the "point of subordination" should be excluded. According to him, if the party gets 35% of the vote across the country, it automatically gets the majority of seats. This amendment does not allow any party to get more than 315 seats in the Lower Chamber. By the way, amendments to the main law of the country are accepted only if they receive approval of at least 325 deputies. This means that no party can do this on its own.
The executive power was controlled by Congressonly in theory until the 1990s. In reality, however, the power of the president was almost absolute. This was because the Institutional Revolutionary Party (IRP), which ruled at that time, owned an absolute majority of seats in both houses. In July 1997, midterm elections were held, which deprived the PRI of this privilege. Nevertheless, most seats in the Senate were retained for this party. After the elections in 2000, none of the parties has a majority in the Congress.
Adoption of laws
Any draft decrees and laws, discussionwhich does not belong to the exclusive competence of the Upper or Lower Chamber, are discussed successively in each of them. The bill, approved by the one in which it was originally introduced, is then sent to another for discussion. If it is approved by another chamber, it is given to the executive. That, in the absence of objections, immediately publishes it. The draft decree or law, partially or completely rejected by the executive, returns with observations to the appropriate chamber, the one from which it originated. Then the procedure is repeated. The project will be a decree or law if it manages to recruit 2/3 of the votes in each of the chambers. After that, the executive publishes it.
If the project was rejected by one of the chambers, itreturns with appropriate remarks to the one from which he proceeded. If it is adopted after repeated discussion by an absolute majority of members, it returns to the ward that rejected it. She again considers this project and, having approved it with the same majority of votes, gives it to the executive power. If the project is not again approved by the Chamber, it can not be re-entered during one session.
We continue to characterize such a country asMexico. The form of government and its state structure were examined by us. It remains only to talk about the judicial system. It is divided in Mexico by state courts and federal courts. They apply, respectively, local and federal legislation. The Supreme Court is at the head of the federal judicial system. In its composition - 21 judges. They are appointed for a term of 6 years by the president, with the consent of the Senate. The Supreme Court has administrative and judicial power over the subordinate bodies of the system. There are exit district (12), unitary exit district (total 9) and county (total 68) courts.
The highest court in the country is the Supreme CourtRepublic. It consists of 21 main members and 5 additional members. It acts as part of the Chambers or the Plenum. Additional members of this court participate in the activities of the Plenum only when they replace the representatives of the Supreme Court. The last of its members annually elects a chairman, who can be re-elected.
The President of the Republic appoints members of the Supremecourt. Their candidacies must also be approved by the House of Senators. By the way, if the decision was not taken at a certain date, it is equated with approval.
District and district courts form the Supreme CourtRepublic. Within four years, the judges must fulfill their duties. In case of promotion or re-election, they can be removed from posts only in the order of a political court (impeachment). The Supreme Court of the Republic, in addition, appoints additional district or district judges. They must help the jury or the courts, which are overburdened with deeds.
So, we briefly described such a country,such as Mexico. The form of government in this country, as well as its state and territorial structure, were examined in general terms. We hope that this information will be useful to you. The form of government and territorial structure of Mexico are topics that can be opened long enough. We tried to provide only the most important information on these issues.