The method of observation involves studyingqualitative features of the examined mental processes, as well as the establishment of regular relationships and relationships between them (features). It is based on a direct perception of the objective features studied by the researcher of mental processes in the relevant activity.
The observation technique has a characteristic feature,allowing to study the phenomenon directly in the process of its stay in its natural conditions, since it occurs (a phenomenon) in real life. This form of knowledge excludes the use of any techniques that can make changes or disrupt the natural course. Under the circumstances, the method of observation provides an opportunity to obtain information about the phenomenon in all the life veracity and completeness of the available qualitative features. This form of study is considered indispensable in the process of describing phenomena. If it is used in explaining (interpreting) events, then a method of comparing and analyzing the directly studied manifestations is used.
The method of observation in psychology is used when studying not immediate subjective experiences of a mental nature, but their manifestations in the behavior and actions of the individual, in his activity and speech.
Between the subjective experiences of the psychiccharacter and objectively observed activity established a regular relationship. Applying the method of observation, the researcher is able to draw sufficiently valid conclusions.
When studying the movements and actions of a persontheir character, speed, strength and other characteristics are assessed. In this case, the method of observation presupposes simultaneous recording of the circumstances that caused or accompanied these qualitative characteristics. The given researches allow to estimate riches, character, accuracy of muscular-motor representations. So, for example, you can identify a coordination disorder in a professional gymnast, if he performs the exercises in an unknown, significantly different from the usual, the situation.
The method of objective observation, organized correctly, is characterized by specialists by certain characteristics.
- The phenomena to be investigated are in habitual conditions for them. At the same time, no changes are made to their normal course. The very fact of cognition should not disturb the phenomenon.
- The research is carried out in the mostcharacteristic for the phenomenon conditions. So, for example, the features of the manifested emotional-volitional processes associated with sports activities, it is more appropriate to study not in traditional lessons in physical culture, but in the conditions of competitions.
- The collection of material in the study is carried out by drawn up in advance of the scheme (plan, program) corresponding to the objectives of the study. Thus, the selection of objective, characteristic materials for the phenomenon under study is facilitated.
- The study is carried out systematically, while the number of persons and the number of observations is sufficient to obtain reliable results.
- The study takes into account a fairly wide range of circumstances that are relevant to the phenomenon under study.
- Observations are carried out under various, regularly changing conditions.
- The results of the studies are recorded using protocols in which sufficiently complete information is introduced that characterizes the main and accompanying circumstances.
- As a rule, precise methods are used to fix the observed phenomena. Sometimes there is a need for the use of fairly complex equipment. </ ol </ p>