In addition to intellectual, perceptualcognitive processes, there are also mnemonic processes. They are components of human cognitive activity, closely related to its perceptual processes, intellectual activity. Emerging images of memory are called representations.
Interpretation of the concept of memory
It is known that this is a process of preservingacquired experience, it is he who makes it possible to reuse the latter in action, as well as return to the realm of consciousness. It connects the past of the individual with his present, as well as the future. Memory is the most important cognitive function, which is the basis for further learning and development.
Past experience consists of renewableimages of individual objects, processes that were perceived in the past, previously learned movements, actions, feelings, desires, and thoughts that once arose.
Basic memory processes
Passing directly to the brain from both internal andexternal stimuli of all kinds of excitation leave the so-called swept away in it, persisting for many years. Speaking figuratively, one can imagine that in the cortex of the hemispheres the paths for the previously mentioned excitations are being pierced, in view of which the nerve connections subsequently appear faster and easier. The latter are preserved, and then come to life in the case of a repetition of excitations, or die out, if they do not repeat, and then the "doubled" is forgotten. Thus, the process of formation, preservation of temporary connections is the physiological foundation of memory.
The mechanism of the phenomenon under consideration
Information that comes from sensory organs is processed by sensory memory, which ensures its retention for a short enough period of time (usually less than a minute).
Depending on the type of stimulus, the latter may be:
- echoic (connection with hearing);
- (connection with vision), and so on.
Psychologists make an assumption aboutThe fact that it is in the sensory memory that physical signs of incoming information are fixed. In other words, at this stage, a distinction is made between memorization - eyes or nose.
Immediately after the completion of the receipt of any information, a process begins such as forgetting.
Types of memory
There are a number of criteria for their classification,one of which is its division by the time of preservation of the received material, and the other by the analyzer prevailing in the previously mentioned processes of memorization, reproduction, preservation of the material.
So, in the 1st case it is customary to allocate several types of memory:
And in the second case we are talking about the visual, olfactory, auditory, tactile and other types of memory. Now we learn more about what auditory and visual memory is.
The first is regarded as a good memory,quite accurate reproduction of various kinds of sounds, for example, musical, speech. Auditory memory is necessary for philologists, acousticians, musicians, and also for people who study foreign languages.
Visual memory is associated first withpreservation, and then with the reproduction of the received visual images. Quite often this species is inherent in people who have eidetic perception, such individuals are able to "see" the captured picture for a long time interval already in the imagination after the end of the impact on the corresponding sense organs. Based on this, the type of memory in question implies the ability to imagine the subject.
So, after we learned what they representauditory and visual memory, it would be useful to pay attention to the issues concerning the possibility of their development. For this purpose it is necessary to address to special techniques.
Development of visual memory
Definitely, that everyone at least once faceda situation where someone from the environment easily remembered the new detailed information. Most people have short-term visual memory. It determines the ability to memorize visual information, deepen understanding in the presence of certain visual materials.
To date, there are methods,helping to improve memory. One of the most common ways is training imagination, development of creative thinking, the use of associations. For example, if you need to memorize multivalued numbers, you need to present them in a form such as plants, animals, inanimate objects. So, a unit can be a roadside pillar, a two is a swan, a six is a padlock (open), a eight is a matryoshka, etc. If it becomes difficult to imagine the whole picture at once, you can try to sketch out a sketch.
Development of auditory memory
As it became clear, auditory and visualmemory can be amenable to training. We have already considered how to improve visual memory, now we learn how to train the auditory. This kind of memory plays an important role for memorizing a new word, songs, poems. An effective exercise for development in this case is "Listen and remember". For example, if this is a child, then after listening to a short tale ("Repki"), he should repeat it in exact sequence.
For smaller children, a simplified formassignments: the names of several pair items (shoes-laces, a plate-spoon, etc.) are sounded. The development of hearing memory is well facilitated by the sound of simple objects. It will be useful to purchase for the child toy musical instruments. You can also show different sounds, after which the child will have to guess the instrument.
Thus, it can be safely said that the auditoryand visual memory are amenable to training, especially in early childhood. To date, there are many methods, it remains only to choose the right one.
Finally it is worth recalling that the article considered such concepts as visual and auditory memory. Details about the processes of memory.