St. Petersburg and its suburbs are richarchitectural and historical sights. But the palaces of Peterhof - undoubted leader in tourist attraction. Fountains, a park and a complex of buildings of this residence are a real masterpiece of world-class architecture and park art.
History of Peterhof
Decision on the construction of the southern shore of the Gulf of Finlandand the construction of the summer residence of the emperor was taken by Peter the Great. In 1712, the first work began on the creation of a residential complex. The Emperor wanted to build a residence that could be compared with the French Versailles. He certainly wanted a magnificent complex of fountains in front of the palace. That is why the previous project of the residence in Strelna was rejected. Under Peter the First, a rather modest palace was erected on the design of Jean Leblanc in the style of the Petrine Baroque. But under Elizabeth Petrovna the palace was completely rebuilt and a building appeared that today is the glory of Peterhof.
During the Second World War, the palace and parkThe complex was almost completely destroyed by the invaders. After the Victory, a huge restoration work was carried out, and today tourists can see Peterhof in all its glory.
Palace and park complex
The center of composition of the residence complex isThe Grand Palace in Peterhof, the Upper and Lower Parks. The most famous, of course, is the Lower Park with its magnificent fountains. The prototype for the complex was Versailles, but Peterhof is more compact and much more harmoniously inscribed in the natural landscape. The water supply system in the fountains is a unique engineering structure. And over the construction of the buildings of Peterhof, architects and engineers from several European countries worked. The upper park with the round fountain "Mezhemumny" is an example of a classic, regular garden in the spirit of the traditions of England and France. But the real gem of Peterhof is the Lower Park with its famous cascade of fountains. The center of the composition is the Samson fountain, but apart from it, there are 64 fountains, more than 250 sculptures. In the park of Peterhof there are several palaces, many cozy corners with fountains, pavilions, places of rest.
The modern view of the Grand Palace in Peterhof wasBuilt according to the project of the great Russian architect of Italian origin Bartolomeo Rastrelli. The building is made in the late Baroque style, fashionable in Elizabeth's time. The architect built a floor and two wings over the existing one under Peter the First, and decorated the roof with luxurious gilt domes. On the main dome is a three-headed eagle with a power and a scepter - a symbol of the imperial power. Two side buildings are connected to the central building by one-storey galleries. The building stands on a small ledge above the Lower Park, and this gives it extra majesty. But the main wealth of the palace is its interior decoration.
Interiors of Petrodvorets
Every year, many tourists come tosee the unique palaces of Russian emperors, and the most popular of them is Peterhof. Inside the palace you can see the luxurious decoration of the main halls and living rooms of the royal family. You can walk around the palace for a very long time. The most beautiful and interesting are the following rooms:
- main staircase;
- Throne room;
- Dance hall;
- Chesme Hall;
- Picture room;
- oak cabinet of Peter the Great;
- Chinese cabinets.
Considering the palaces of Peterhof, you can not pass byMonplaisir. It was built under Peter the Great, he himself chose a place on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, from which the floating ships are perfectly visible. The building is set on a high granite "pillow", which emphasizes its lightness and airiness. This summer palace in Peterhof is made of red brick and in its style resembles the Dutch houses, so beloved by the emperor. The central square part of the structure is covered with a tent, two galleries with pavilions adjoin it. The palace is a model of laconism and rationality. They are manifested not only in planning and appearance, but also in the interior. The halls of the palace are decorated with tiles, marble, Chinese panels, decorative carvings and stucco moldings. The center of the palace is the main hall, to which there is a bedroom, an office, a secretarial, a kitchen, a pantry.
Like many of the palaces of Peterhof, Marley was conceivedPeter the Great, who wanted to combine convenience with benefit and beauty. The French impressions of the emperor became the prototype of the palace. But from the complex of Louis Fourteenth there is only a composition left: the location of the palace on the shore of the pond, in which the fish for the court table are bred. A small cubic building (the summer palace in Peterhof for rest) was built by architect I. Braunstein. The exterior of the palace is very laconic, but inside everything is subordinated to the functions of the premises. In the palace there were two offices: Oak and Chinarovy, as well as the lobby, or the Front Hall, in which it was customary to drink tea while walking through the park.
Describing the palaces of Peterhof, it is customary to talk aboutpavilion of the Hermitage. This structure also appeared as a result of the impressions of Peter the Great from a trip to Prussia. There he saw a house for privacy and ordered I. Braunstein to build something like this in Peterhof. Elegant, air cubic pavilion intended for audiences of the emperor and foreign dignitaries. The first floor of the building is occupied by various office buildings, and on the second floor there is the Parade Hall, in which Elizaveta Petrovna loved to receive guests. From the first floor to the second, a unique table for Russia with a mechanism is raised, which made it possible to remove servants from the audience hall.
The complex of the Peterhof residence continuedto be completed before the beginning of the 20th century. In 1825, Emperor Nicholas the First ordered to build a rural house to provide the residence with the necessary products. So there was a palace Cottage. This is not a farm, but a small building for the imperial family, in which its members could deal with everyday household chores. The structure is made in the style of medieval English Gothic. 19 century - the time when the family of monarchs not only began to strive to live parades and balls, but also wanted to be able to live a normal life. It was difficult to do in St. Petersburg, and Peterhof was very suitable for this. The palace, the tour of which is very interesting, shows the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna as a very practical and intelligent hostess. Here you can see her office, library, Big and Small living rooms, stood also in the Gothic (so rare for Russia) style.
What to see in Peterhof: reviews of tourists
The Imperial residence covers an area of more than100 hectares. Therefore, tourists recommend before you start to explore the vast territory, visit the "Summer Palace", a restaurant in Peterhof, which sets up visitors to the necessary wave. In addition to the Upper, Lower Park and the listed palaces, the tourist, in the opinion of those who are resting here, should pay attention to the following facilities:
- the Gothic Chapel of Alexander Nevsky;
- Tsaritsyn pavilion in the Italian style;
- the Cathedral of Peter and Paul in New Peterhof;
- Imperial stables;
- Belvedere Palace.
What to do in Peterhof: reviews of tourists
Peterhof is worthy to spend here thougha few days, you can come here several times and there will always be something new and interesting. What can you do here? Experienced tourists recommend to arrange a quest and find all the fountains of parks. Walk along the alleys and lawns of parks, looking at sculptures, bridges and pavilions. It's tasty to eat. For this purpose, the Summer Palace, a restaurant in Peterhof, is a perfect place to taste fine cuisine in real palace interiors. Visiting this institution will be a worthy end to a great trip to Peterhof.