World history is full of different expressions and idioms, owhich we heard many times, but did not often think about what they mean. Some words are familiar to us from literary works, from films or songs. There are also such expressions that the First and Second World Wars brought us, as well as civil confrontations.
¡No pasaran! - what does this expression mean in Russia, have learned thanks to Spain. Although in fact, for the first time it became known through the French, and it was not quite like the Spanish version. Ils ne passeront pas! It was translated as "No Pass!" and was first used in 1916.
This political slogan appeared during the FirstWorld War II, more precisely, in the Battle of Verdun, which lasted almost 10 months: from February 21 to December 18. This battle was one of the most ambitious and scary, so the story went like Verdun's meat grinder. Thanks to proper actions, the French could stop the Germans.
It was at that time that the famous French general Robert Georges Nivell, who, although he preferred aggressive actions, nevertheless took a defensive position, said "There is no passage!".
Now it is difficult to say, before or after Nivel, thesewords began to be depicted on posters with propaganda. But already in 1918 On ne passe pas! could be seen on the poster dedicated to the second battle on the Marne. Also, the idioms were used on the garrison sign.
A hilarious ¡No pasaran! (translation from Spanish - "They will not pass") became known just during the Civil War in Spain. Its events took place from July 1936 to April 1939. Then the conflict between the Second Spanish Republic and the rebel Franco turned into a horrible armed action.
It is known that Francisco Franco was the pioneerfascism in Spain. It was supported by Italy, Germany and Portugal. It is therefore not surprising that in the pre-war period, he decided to seize power in Spain, so that later on Hitler's side would conquer the world.
During the Civil War, the francists approachedthe capital. But the anti-fascist forces were ready for defense. The author of the phrase ¡No pasaran !, which means "They will not pass!" Became an oppositionist of the dictatorship of Franco Dolores Ibarruri. Also at that time it was often called Passionaria.
The woman had a very difficult destiny, like any otheranother active political figure of that time. After Franco reached the capital, she had to migrate to the USSR. There she lived until 1975, after her death, Franco was able to return to her native land.
After the Civil War, many learned about the phrase ¡Nopasaran !, which means this slogan and who was first applied. Dolores made this phrase not just idiomatic. She turned ordinary words into a symbol of a whole anti-fascist movement. During the first attempt of Franco to seize the country, this phrase proved to be successful. The fascist had to stop the offensive. And the opponents of his dictatorship followed up another slogan, "Pasaremos!", Which did not receive such popularity as ¡No pasaran !, which means "We'll pass!".
As you know, the first time Madrid stood in front offascists. But as a result of the Civil War in Spain, Franco Franco nevertheless became the dictator of Spain and was already until 1975, until his death. 4 days before the end of the war, the dictator voiced a response phrase - Hemos pasado, which meant "We have passed."
As we have already figured out, the phrase ¡No pasaran!, which means "They will not pass!", was used during the Civil War in Spain. Some mistakenly combine this political slogan with Viva la Cuba !. In fact, these are two separate phrases that have been used at different times and have not been officially recorded together anywhere.
In general, the history of the Cuban revolution was preservedseveral well-known slogans that have become common idioms. Many of them were very aggressive and provocative. For example, ¡Cuba - sí! ¡Yankee - no! or Yankee go home !. Also in Cuba, Patria o muerte was often used! ("Homeland or Death!").
Soviet and post-Soviet expressions were alsovery popular. They were not always militant. Some glorified the government: "All power to the Soviets!". Some called for action: "Learn, learn, learn." There were also those who, on the contrary, called for peace: "Peace is Peace!" Or "Peace, Labor, May".