The ancient civilizations of the East were located in the southernparts of Asia and in northern Africa. These include Babylon, Assyria, Iran, Phenicia, Ancient China, Urartu, Egypt, Ancient India and the Hittite state.
Eastern despotism is the main feature that characterizes the state structure of these states. This term means the unlimited power of one head of state.
The reason for the formation of the easterndespotism, lies in the fact that in ancient countries the land community remained in place for a long time and private property for land was not developed for a long time. Thus, the rural community became the basis of this state structure. In addition, the emergence of this system contributed to the traditional rules, which could not disturb the village communities. For example, in Egypt, the importance of despotic power was reinforced by the need to create irrigation facilities, without which it was impossible to farm. If the inhabitants refused such a political system, the state authorities could destroy important elements of platinum, and the population would be left without water, and, consequently, mass death would begin.
In addition, Eastern despotism relied onthe divine dignity of their rulers. For example, in Egypt, the pharaoh fully controlled the legislative, military and judicial powers. Nobody could oppose his decision, because it was believed that he was a mediator between people and gods. In the Ancient Sumerian state, the head was also a supreme power. He was recognized as a priest, therefore his orders were executed unconditionally. In India despotism was characterized as the complete arbitrariness of the ruling monarch. However, here the ruler was not a priest. All his power was based on the teachings of the brahmanas.
In ancient China, the ruler was not only a priest, but also a "son of heaven."
Eastern despotism had characteristic features:
1) The prevalence of the state over society inof an absolute degree. The state is considered the highest power that stands above a person. It regulates all spheres of activity and attitudes of people not only in society, but also in the family. The head of state shapes tastes, social ideals, can appoint and dismiss officials at any time, is uncontrolled, exercises command of the army.
2) Coercive policy. The main task that faced the state - the buildup of fear for every resident. Wards should tremble and believe that the ruler of the country is not a tyrant, but a defender of the people, reigning at every level of power, punishing arbitrary and evil.
3) State ownership of land. All it belonged to only the state, no private person had freedom in economic terms.
4) Socio-hierarchical structure. It looks like a pyramid. At its top was the governor, then the state bureaucracy, the community farmers and the lowest step belonged to dependent people.
5) Each civilization of the Ancient East hadorganized government apparatus. It consisted of three departments: financial, public, as well as military. Before each was a specific task. The financial department sought funds for the maintenance of the administrative apparatus and the army, the public engaged in construction work, the creation of roads, the military - the supply of foreign slaves.
It is worth noting that despotism was not onlynegative character. Even under such a system, the state gave some guarantees to the population, although not in equal measure. The laws controlled relations between the population, they imposed punishments for actions. Thus, a civilized society of a modern type began to form.