Political advertising is spreadingcertain information about political parties, associations, public and state organizations, public authorities and citizens taking part in activities of a political nature. To the public, ideas, programs, and attitudes are conveyed through various means. The spread of political information began from the moment the state appeared. At that moment it became necessary for the authorities to enter into communication (communication) with the population in order to get help from it. Thus, through information to the state it was convenient to influence the behavior of its citizens.
Political advertising, being a system of specific communications, is designed to change the behavior and consciousness of people in accordance with the goals pursued by the advertiser.
The structure of this specific information dissemination includes:
- Subject. This definition should be understood political movements (associations, parties), applicants for elected office.
- An object. In this case, the target audience (voters) is meant.
- The subject is the personality of the leaders of parties, movements, associations, electoral programs and so on.
- Goal. Political advertising can be conducted to form public opinion. The goal may be to come to power through the exercise of elective office.
- Tasks. In this definition, the specified goals are often used.
- Facilities. These include publications and broadcasts in the media, posters, clips, leaflets, televised debates, meetings with the target audience (voters). Inseparable forms of dissemination of political information were photographs, cartoons, cartoons. Radio programs are also quite popular. Souvenir products are very common as a form of reporting political information.
- Reverse and direct communication. The presence of these elements implies the conduct of public opinion polls, the study of relations to the applicant and his agitation, and so on.
Being a communication structure withpsychological point of view, political advertising includes three main components. The first is the cognitive (cognitive) element. It gives the consumer new information. The second is considered an affective element. It forms the right emotional attitude. The third is the regulatory component, designed to induce certain actions.
The features of political advertising should be considered specifically, but given the presence in it of the psychological specifics of commercial advertising.
The similarity between the two concepts is in the presence of a "product" or proposal (idea, political leader or party) and the market, consumers are voters.
The difference is the place that takespolitical advertising in a democratizing society in life. The dissemination of information is not limited to certain samples (posters, stands, publications, etc.). From the point of view of psychological consideration, the purposeful various speeches of political aspirants, designed to influence the consciousness and, therefore, the choice of the voter, also apply to political advertising.
Despite the fact that there is a lotdefinitions, in each of them there is the concept of "communication". Thus, the dissemination of political information is carried out using the media and other means that provide communication with voters. At the same time, the goal is to influence people's attitudes towards political objects or subjects.
With the help of political advertising, an image of parties, people, programs, political views is created.