Russian writer Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich,whose biography ended in February 1997 in Paris, today not only has not been forgotten, but continues to be one of the key figures of Russian foreign literature. His name is constantly mentioned in acute social and political discussions that erupt between representatives of various literary groups. Therefore, it will not be superfluous to recall this extraordinary person and think about what thoughts and ideas he wanted to convey to his descendants.

From the biography of the writer

The future writer Andrei Sinyavsky appeared onlight in 1925 in Moscow. His childhood passed in an intelligent family of noble origin. The ancestors of the writer occupied a prominent position in the Russian Empire, but were also noted for their participation in revolutionary events. The well-known fact is that it is the cultural and intellectual environment that has a decisive influence on the formation of the creative personality.

Andrew Sinyavsky
It is in this habitat that thethe future famous writer Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich. The family strongly supported the young man's desire for knowledge. Andrei showed special interest in philology and the study of foreign languages. But his education was interrupted by the outbreak of war. Since the autumn of 1941 his family lived in evacuation in Syzran. Whence after the termination of high school Andrey Sinyavsky has been called up in operating army. He entered the philological faculty of Moscow State University in 1945, after the Victory. After his graduation, he conducted scientific work at the Institute of World Literature, and also taught at the journalism department of Moscow State University and at the Moscow Art Theater School.

Literary creativity

His way to great literature writer AndreiSinyavsky began with critical articles, literary studies and biographies of the classics of Russian literature of the twentieth century. His work in this field was recognized by the reading public. The young man of letters enjoyed a well-deserved authority both in the circles of Moscow's bohemia and far beyond its borders. Ahead were the remarkable prospects and the successful existence of the Soviet literary functionary.

Andrei Sinyavsky Biography
Nevertheless, the writer Andrei Sinyavsky, biographywho was developing quite successfully, was preparing to make a sharp turn in his life. He hardly suspected himself of what shocks await him ahead.

Abram Tertz

At a certain stage of his work, the writerfaced with a seemingly unsolvable problem - the inability to speak and write the truth about the surrounding reality and its attitude towards it. No one would ever have read or heard what Siniavsky Andrey Donatovich intended to say in Russian literature. His books simply could not be published in the Soviet Union. But the way out was found. Under a false name, he could say whatever he saw fit. And publish their works outside their native country. His nickname Andrei Sinyavsky borrowed from the character of the Odessa criminal song. It described the adventures of a petty rogue of Jewish nationality. So he became Abram Tertz.

Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich
In the early sixties in the West were publishedthe story of Lyubimov, the story "The Court Is Going" and the sharply publicistic article "What is Socialist Realism?", dashingly mocked the official principles of Soviet literature. In the homeland of the writer, few guessed that the author of these works is Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich. His books came out with the name of Abram Tertz on the title page. Sinyavsky was one of the first to succeed in deceiving Soviet censorship.

Process

Only here is the Soviet power of such encroachmentson its foundations did not forgive. In September 1965, the writer was arrested by the KGB. We took him on Nikitsky Boulevard on a trolleybus stop. Thus, Andrei Sinyavsky, whose biography until this moment did not commit such sharp turns, became a political prisoner. In the same case, the writer Julius Daniel was also arrested, who also published his books under a pseudonym in the West. The process of Sinyavsky-Daniel became very significant in the history of the development of social thought.

Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich family
In the Soviet Union, writers were judged for their works of art. It was very much like a medieval witch hunt.

Social movement in defense of Sinyavsky and Daniel

The trial of writers that endedseven-year sentence, caused a great public outcry in the Soviet Union and beyond. The positive thing was that many people stood up for the convicts inside the country. And it happened in spite of unbridled official propaganda. For the authorities that organized the prosecution of Sinyavsky and Daniel, this was an unpleasant surprise. People collected signatures under appeals in defense of writers and even went to demonstrations in the center of Moscow. This position required considerable courage. The defenders of the writers could easily follow them. But the movement for the protection of convicts was spreading all over the world. In many European capitals and overseas, protests were held in front of Soviet diplomatic missions.

Captive

Conclusion Andrei Sinyavsky was serving Mordovia, in"Dubrovlage". According to the directive from Moscow, it was used only in the most difficult jobs. At the same time the writer did not leave literary creativity. Behind the barbed wire Andrei Sinyavsky wrote a number of books - "The Voice of the Chorus," "Walks with Pushkin," "In the Shadow of Gogol." The author did not even have the confidence that he created in custody will reach the will, to the reader.

Andrei Sinyavsky open letter to Solzhenitsyn
Under the pressure of international public opinion, the writer was released from prison before the end of the term. In June 1971, he was released.

Emigration

In 1973, at the famous University of Paris inSorbonne appears a new professor from Russia - Andrei Sinyavsky. The biography of the writer continued in emigration. He was invited to teach in France soon after his release from prison. But only the professor's department, the writer was not going to be limited. Andrei Sinyavsky, whose books managed to find a response from a wide range of readers, for the first time in his life was in a situation where he could publish everything he saw fit. Without regard to censorship. First of all, what has already been written in the Soviet Union comes to light.

Including in custody. In particular, "Walks with Pushkin". This is one of the most scandalous books, authored by Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich. Wife of the writer, Maria Rozanova, to some extent is its co-author. Andrei Sinyavsky composed this book in prison and sent it in private correspondence because of barbed wire. For individual chapters.

writer Andrew Sinyavsky

Andrei Sinyavsky, "Open Letter to Solzhenitsyn"

With some surprise, Sinyavsky found that inLiterary foreign countries are seething with the same passions as in Moscow. Russian emigration was far from unity. Relatively speaking, it was divided into two camps - liberals and patriots. And the reaction of the patriotic side to the literary and journalistic articles of the new professor of the Sorbonne was sharply negative. Special dislike was caused by Abram Tertz's book "Walks with Pushkin". Most of all the critics were interested in who, by nationality, Andrei Sinyavsky. And Abram Tertz did not disappoint this audience, having acted with sharp rebuke to the opponents. In his famous "Open Letter to Solzhenitsyn," he accused the famous compatriot of implanting new authoritarianism and intolerance of alternative opinions. And with a fair amount of sarcasm he brought to the attention of the addressee that he himself was to blame for the misfortunes of the Russian people, and not some mythical Jews and other dark forces.

Sinyavsky Andrey Donatovich books
After this controversy, the access for Abram Tertz to the emigrant periodicals was forever closed. The writer Andrei Sinyavsky was forced to think about the founding of his own magazine.

"Syntax"

Such a publication was created. For many years, the "Syntax" magazine became one of the centers of intellectual and spiritual attraction of Russian emigration. It was published in Paris by Andrei Sinyavsky and Maria Rozanova. The magazine covered a wide range of topics from public, political and literary life. The publication was open to people with different points of view in principle. It also published materials from the Soviet Union. "Syntax" was in continuous controversy with another popular in emigrant circles publication - "Continent" Vladimir Maksimov.