When carrying out non-cash settlements betweenenterprises, firms and organizations very often there is a situation when the analysis of accounts payable and accounts receivable is necessary. Before proceeding to the description of the methods of this analysis, it is necessary to understand the very concepts that are characterized by these categories.
The receivable (RR) isany type of debt that may arise from one business entity, including individuals, in relation to other entities. Its accounting and analysis is complicated by the fact that the nature of DZ is determined by a combination of causes.
Here are some of them:
- a type of product that is the subject for which settlements between subjects of economic relations are made;
- the size of the market on which these enterprises and organizations operate;
- level of saturation of the given market with those goods for which calculations are conducted;
- those specific forms and methods of calculations that are used by these enterprises in the calculations.
In the current work, the control of the receivabledebt is to correctly and accurately measure its dynamics, that is, to establish how it changes during the reporting period (or another period chosen for analysis), in tracking its structure and sources of origin, specifically to know which economic entities it is listed , what are its monetary amounts and timing of occurrence.
At the same time, the most careful attention should be paid to such types of DZ as unjustified and overdue.
To the unjustified, the analysis of accounts payable and accounts receivable includes:
- resulting from shortages, theft or embezzlement;
- debt of UCS firms and enterprises that are formed in violation of financial discipline;
- debts of partners for unpaid, but already delivered goods.
That debt, the maturity of which has already expired on claims, is written off to the losses of the given enterprise. Legislation is 3 years.
Such a form as other debts, includes several articles of commodity and non-commodity properties. These are:
- settlements between business entities on planned payments;
- arrears arising from the delay in the provision of reports by persons who received funds under report;
- debt for payments for the use or rental of residential premises and municipal debts.
In order to optimize the value of DZ, the analysiscreditor and accounts receivable suggests that it is especially necessary to turn to the selection of possible consumers of the enterprise's products and the establishment of the most favorable terms for payment for the goods supplied by the enterprise.
As practice shows, the analysis of the creditor andaccounts receivable is carried out either by a continuous method or by a method of selective analysis. In each case, the choice of method depends on the size of the debt, the characteristics of the debtors and the reliability of the documents they represent.
However, the most important in the analysis are the following DZ indicators:
- Absolute, which reflects those debts for which the maturity period has exceeded three months;
- Turnover, which is calculated by the formula: О = В / ДЗ (ср), where: В - proceeds from the sold products, net of VAT, ДЗ (ср) - average value of the value of accounts receivable, О - value of turnover.
- the repayment period of the DZ, which is defined as the quotient of the number of days in a year (the number 360 is assumed) by the value of the turnover amount (O).
As the most important indicator characterizing DZ, one should take the axiomatic: the longer the duration of the delay in DZ, the lower the probability of its repayment.
Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the analysissuch parameter as short-term accounts receivable, which means that payments on which consumers of products are expected to arrive within the next 12 months. Here an important direction of work for each enterprise or organization is to maintain constant interaction with consumers and control their financial sustainability, which should be organized on the basis of studying various, primarily independent sources of information.