The world of natural and artificial systemsobjectively exists and develops independently. The results of technical progress express the will and actions of its creators, as a rule, at the initial stages of implementation.
Man creates systems in the most diverseand the creation of some, often changes the content of others. Thus, a new enterprise with an unconventional production cycle or atypical production for a particular territory changes its social and economic shape over time: a direct systemic effect arises, as well as an indirect one.
It is not always possible to calculate the result of human creativity, and it is quite difficult to determine all the consequences of introducing artificial systems.
The dynamics of a single system change: an example
The Internet is a popular example of an artificial system that has long and continuously lived its own life. Many processes here do not lend themselves to human influence.
It's generally known that cloud technologies are not sohave long been popular, but no one knows that they were realized in 1991, although it was not the author, not that level and not that scope. But the fact: the Air Art technology existed and exists to this day within the limited availability.
A simpler example - even before the advent of systemssite management it was customary to make sites in a style where the page is independent, and the links between the pages determine the unity (a complete system) - the site. Each page flies from the server to the user's browser entirely.
The emergence of site management systems (CMS)has led to a new systemic effect: the developer began to make the site hundreds of times faster, and the functionality of a particular team of CMS developers has become a natural basis for the pages of a particular site. But this is an imaginary result, not so much qualitative as quantitative.
It was Google who put his hand to the radically newby creating their famous cards. But the effect here is not at all in them and certainly not in their popularity, but it was the strongest incentive to switch to the technologies of developing Internet resources on AJAX.
Since then, the technology of any resource on the Web: no full page load. The page is dynamically generated and updated only in the place where it really is needed! What is the essence of the system effect? In that earlier the page was an indivisible whole, but became a dynamic system, accessible by syntactic and semantic components, as well as by the elements of each component.
In the 90s an interesting idea appeared to combinethe theory of solving inventive problems and a computer: to create an "Inventive Machine". The idea was not only original, but also certainly practical. And the result did not live up to expectations.
It is possible that the system effect worked inreverse direction: the logical programming language Prolog was chosen as the main tool. But it turned out that the logic of predicates is not a way to explain how thinking works (as stated in the description of the language). And just like the language of artificial intelligence, Prolog did not take place not only in relation to the "Inventing Machine".
Understand what the essence of the system effect (examples,experiments, theory, etc.) is easy: tear off the wing of the aircraft and the ability to fly disappears. Turn off the electricity at the bakery and there will be no bread. The fact that there will be a building, and in it equipment, grain, yeast, ingredients and people - is not that effect.
Meanwhile, history is full of manyexamples, when the plane was flying and landing, not only without a wing, but also without a tail. Other craftsmen could land an airplane in which the elevator of the heights jammed upwards. The pilot just turned the passenger liner, and just before the earth returned the car to its normal position and dropped the speed: the plane sat down, the lives of passengers were saved.
Objective reality and artificial systems
Ideal and enduring all natural systems. In nature, a systemic effect can be observed everywhere. Examples are man himself, and forest, land, water, air. Many times a man tried to manage natural systems: he put dams, transported animals, transferred vegetation from one natural environment to another.
Often such experiments turned out to be successful, andThe new design showed a real system effect. Other ideas did not work. Violation of objective laws led the natural state of things to an obviously different state. Then what is the systemic effect? Bring your ideas to the correspondence of objective reality, and the desired result will never be long in coming.
The idea of an inventive machine could well have taken placeat the time of his birth, all it was necessary to put it correctly on the right track. After all, the beginning of TRIZ lies in the generalization of the mass of physical, chemical, technological and in general very many inventions. So why then did the computer not put the production of inventions on the flow and did not make a person happy?
The space and points in it
It is difficult to consider space out of time, andthe achieved level of knowledge still feels insecure even in the long-open laws of electricity, magnetism, and gravity. Definitely, there are also other laws about which a person does not know at all.
Confidently one can assert what the essence of the systemiceffect. According to objective reality, every system consists of internal subsystems, but itself enters the supersystem. Only when the system can objectively be called "space-time" - it is the highest and only system. Although if you believe science fiction, philosophers and physicists, preaching the reality of various dimensions and parallel worlds, then the person will still have many discoveries.
But if you do not rise above the available knowledge andto be guided by objective reality, then it is possible to represent space as a system of points, and every point a system of points. Then raising the question - give an example of a systemic effect - will have only three components:
- describe the point as it is;
- describe the systems inside the point, how they interact;
- describe the mutual participation of the point and its subsystems with the surrounding space.
By and large, another system is notalways describe or analyze. This can be interesting only in the form of experience or satisfaction of one's own interests. But some systems are interesting and very important for the public consciousness.
At a time when Prolog was in power,Lisp (Lisp) and the ideas of artificial intelligence, had the legal authority of the assembler language - the language of machines. There were not so many options for it, because the number of architectures was small, but only one thing is important: Assembler could never be attributed to the language of artificial intelligence. It was even impolite to write something applied, and even then C / C ++ was positioned on system things, and sometimes Pascal with assembler inserts.
Even if one does not understand anything from the field of artificial intelligence, it is difficult to deny the objectivity of the following moments, characteristic of the natural intelligence:
- he is situational;
The first point is a child who learns to play,speak, act. All his decisions depend on the surrounding situation. There is a ball, there will be a ball and everything connected with it, until you get bored. There is a mother, there will be a mother, and if the father is near, the first word will be "dad". Some scholars give examples of tribes that have not yet emerged from the jungle and hunt, or remember the ancient tribes that hunted and fishing, were engaged in rock art.
Here speech or behavior is understood only independing on the situation (environment) in which the system is located (child, person). It is not necessary to remember the ancient rites of information transmission with dances, cries, gestures. Any person at any age falls into the situational level of development, finding himself in an unfamiliar and unforeseen situation.
Reproducing and contextual levels
The moment of reproduction is a generalization of situational knowledge, when there is a concept that the circle is a ball and watermelon, and the car will be a trolley, a bus, and any object on four wheels with a motor.
The moment of the context is the application of all the accumulated knowledge, the real decision-making on both the ball and watermelon and their transfer by analogy to other subjects and situations.
What is the systemic effect: the absolute version
It's simple. So, in the assembler of the known computer PDP-11, an intelligent system was implemented. History omits her name, but the point is that she was designed for simple mathematical calculations: only four arithmetic operations.
The author's minimum system fulfilled, being onsituational level with elements of the contextual, she memorized and recognized the items, said "mom" and "dad", oriented in the situation, in general, reminded the child of the bed-stroller stage of development.
System effect? Far from it, the system was useless in essence, but the whole trick was that absolutely an outsider, wanting to show uselessness and impracticality of the system, knowing nothing about it, taught her four arithmetic actions, and also to divide and multiply the number by zero.
System and transformational moment
You can always talk about the system effect. Indeed, the airplane, ship, and bakery are real systems, parts of which have their own personal systems. And only a combination of personal parts creates a new quality, a new functional.
Cases when the subsystem is out of order,violate the system as a whole in a certain part. But it can not be said that the quality of the system is lost. Just broken functional. The more damage is done to the system, the less it is useful.
Any natural system provides not onlyits self-recovery, but also adaptation to a changing environment. The readiness to perform unexpected actions, to orientate in an unfamiliar environment - that is the essence of the system effect.
If the artificial system is created with an orientation to survivability and adaptability, its quality and functionality will be in demand and effective.
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