When constructing small-story houses more oftenin total a strip foundation is used. A base of this type is suitable for relatively light small houses on dense and stable ground. For a less sturdy ground, the bases of columnar or floating type are expedient.
Belt foundations are divided by structure into:
- reinforced concrete;
By installation depth:
- in the basement of the building.
The foundation of this type is an uninterrupted belt system, which is the support and base for all walls, both external and internal carriers.
The most popular ribbon foundation is reinforced concrete, that is, with the presence of metal fittings, which adds strength and stability to the entire structure.
The reinforcement for the strip foundation is selectedcarefully and very carefully, as this is an important stage in the construction of the building. The choice depends on the purpose of the building and its scale. For example, armature for a foundation 10-12mm in diameter is suitable for building a garage, and for a house in a dacha this thickness will not be enough.
Reliability and durability of the building directlydepends on the quality of the foundation, and, accordingly, and its component part - the reinforcement, therefore, the processes of erecting the foundation and selecting reinforcement should be controlled very rigidly.
Material for foundation reinforcement.
The reinforcement for the foundation is made of steel inthe form of rods having perpendicular protrusions - corrugations. Their task is to ensure maximum adhesion to concrete. This steel is produced by hot-rolled production technology, which significantly increases its strength and durability.
So what kind of reinforcement is needed for the foundation? Builders advise to use this element with the attachment "in the cell", when two rows of wires are perpendicular to each other. It is also recommended to use a bonded reinforcement, as during welding, the metal becomes much thinner, which means that the strength of the structure decreases, which should not be allowed. The binding of all the wires takes place by means of a special knitting pistol or steel heated wire. Armature should be in the thickness of the foundation, while not sinking to the bottom. The most convenient and fastest way to achieve this is to create stability with the help of bricks and just stick the ends of the grid into the ground. Another method is to use special holders from the eraser.
Approximate standards for laying reinforcement infoundation - two layers of three twigs in each. But, the optimal depth of erection of the foundation itself can be determined only by carefully studying all parameters of the soil. Therefore, for correct calculations of the depth of occurrence and the number of layers of reinforcement, it is necessary to turn to specialists who will make all necessary calculations and give their recommendations.
Reinforcement of the strip foundation.
A trench is pulled out of the required size. It poured rubble or sand (the height along the perimeter should be at least 500mm). Then, above the ground level, a form is put (zero mark). Then the reinforcement for the foundation is installed. Horizontal pairing is done with the distance between each rod - about 300mm. Vertical - about 200mm. To ensure the greatest strength in jumper connections, vertical reinforcement for the foundation is mandatory.
Concrete, the brand of which is below the M200, is not suitable for erecting such a foundation.
Do not forget about the need fora minimum of three holes for ventilation in the plinth. This feature of the installation increases the strength of the structure, as well as protects against deformation. At the end of the work, the formwork is removed.