In 2013 - 2014, many Russian banks have securitiesrevoked the license. This not only caused panic among depositors, but also hit other credit institutions. Clients began to withdraw funds even from financially stable banks. Then for the first time in a long time the word "sanation" sounded very loud. What is the procedure for saving a credit institution by the state? In this article you will learn what the sanitation of banks is.
A set of procedures aimed at restoringfinancial condition - bank sanation. What does it mean? If it is possible to avoid the bankruptcy of a financial institution, the management of the bank will be transferred to the Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA). Sanitation is beneficial for customers who have deposited a deposit, since it allows you to save all invested funds. If a bank is revoked a license, the DIA can refund only a portion of the value of the deposit. But if there is an investor who will buy out the entire credit institution, legal entities will also benefit, since they can continue to be serviced in the organization. The new owner uses the whole complex of measures to restructure payables and get rid of illiquid assets. That's what sanation of banks is. But it is very rare. If the hole in the balance sheet corresponds to the volume of assets, then nothing will be done.
Rehabilitation is carried out if:
- The bank is significant for the economy of the country or a particular region ("Solidarity" in the Samara region);
- The credit institution is stable, but faced a temporary shortage of liquidity due to panic (Gazenergobank).
The decision is made by the CBR. Further, the Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA) performs temporary management of the bank until its assets are transferred to another financial institution. It will also be allocated funds to restore solvency and payment of obligations. Sometimes the DIA manages to restore the troubled bank on its own. But most often you have to look for investors. It should be a reliable financial institution with a positive experience of healing in the past. The recoverable bank in total can receive capital from three sources: from the Central Bank, the DIA and the private investor. That's what sanation of banks is.
The recovery procedure helps the physical andlegal entities to keep deposits in full. In the event of a bankruptcy, enterprises lose all their savings, and ordinary citizens will receive only amounts up to 700 thousand rubles. Sanitation allows you to fully restore the activities of a financial institution. Additional capital makes it possible to save jobs and quickly eliminate current problems.
What is the benefit of the investor?
The state saves only strong orregionally important banks. Development of business and increase of confidence in the investor from local institutions is greatly facilitated by the bank's sanitation. What does it mean? In exchange for invested funds, the financial institution receives a portion of the capital, the organization's product line, infrastructure capacities and its customer base. All these data the investor will be able to use for synergy with other of its activities.
The basis for the rehabilitation is the realthe ability to restore the solvency of the bank. The procedure for recovery should not exceed 1.5 years. If within three years another application has been submitted in the bankruptcy case, the bank can not be sent again to the sanation.
After the petition is satisfied, the arbitration courtannounces a contest for participation in the procedure of recovery. The main directions for restoring the solvency of the bank: deferred repayment of bonds issued, with a decrease in%, the issue of new securities, the provision of additional loans, the prolongation of previously received loans, etc. The preferential right to participate in the rehabilitation are lenders, the owner of the bank and its employees.
Bank sanitation: what to do to depositors
It is important to remember that duringrestoration of the financial condition of the organization, all customer funds will be retained. The bank receives additional capital, which should be aimed at eliminating all current liquidity problems. Earlier in schools, strong students helped the weak. Now the same practice is applied in the banking sector. Therefore, the most important thing in this situation is not to panic. Even if the management stated that it temporarily "freezes" all funds, investors will be able to return money, but it will take some time.
It is important to distinguish between the concepts of "sanitation" and "bankruptcy". In the second case, the repayment of citizens' funds in the amount of up to 700 thousand rubles is guaranteed by the DIA. According to the Law on Insurance of Individual Deposits with Russian Banks, payments should begin 14 days after the withdrawal of the bank's license. But in practice, time will pass much more. And the point here is not even that the DIA can not immediately return deposits with the promised large interest. Much more time will be spent on analyzing the financial state and compiling a register of depositors.
Enterprises and IPs return their deposits, ratherall, can not. According to the Federal Law on Insolvency of Credit Institutions, such claims are satisfied after payment of obligations to individuals, DIA and the Central Bank, provided that the financial institution still has the funds. Therefore, it is so important that an investor appears who can restore the solvency of the organization.
Although last year many licenses were revokedbanks, the stock of funds from the Agency is still there. If the money runs out, the Central Bank will provide additional financing, having previously issued the national currency. The devaluation of the ruble could hit hard on the holders of foreign currency deposits. The amount of their deposit taking into account interest will exceed 700 thousand rubles. Owners of ruble deposits, although they will be able to return their savings, but by that time they will be greatly depreciated. Therefore, in this case, you can advise the following: at the first hints of a strong currency devaluation, contact the bank's office with a request to "break" your deposit into several parts. Even better - to re-form part of the contribution to a relative. In carrying out a cashless transaction you can not refuse, because in fact you do not take the currency from the bank.
What will happen next?
Upon completion of the rehabilitation procedure, a new investorindependently decides whether to retain the brand, business model and team of employees or develop everything from scratch. Most often they change. The Central Bank can not influence this decision in any way.
Rehabilitation of banks 2014
In the outgoing year, most of all,the news about the introduction of the provisional administration into one of the oldest credit institutions in the country. We are talking about JSC "Baltic Bank" (St. Petersburg). Sanitation of the financial institution began in August 2014. To restore liquidity, the Central Bank first allocated 10 billion rubles. DIA held a tender for participation in the procedure for the recovery of the credit institution "Baltic Bank". Sanitation has been going on for five months. The new investor of Alfa-Bank is leading the process. During this time, many customers have already experienced positive changes in the activities of the organization. The brand and business model have remained unchanged. But customers can now withdraw funds from an additional 5000 Alfa ATMs without commission. The network of offices will not be reconstructed quickly. The management also assured that the rates on deposit and loan agreements will remain unchanged until the end of their validity. Earlier, Alfa-Bank participated in the recovery of the Northern Treasury. After the restoration, this financial organization was liquidated and joined to the investor. The same fate awaits the "Baltic Bank". Sanitation will be carried out at the expense of budgetary funds in the amount of 57 billion, which the investor received under preferential 0.51%.
18.11.2014 it became known that the DIA took over the functions of temporary administrator in the management of the GROWTH group. In addition to the credit organization of the same name, it includes four other institutions: Kedr, Akkobank, SKA, Tveruniversalbank. In October 2014, the Central Bank took up assessment of the financial condition of the holding company, the results of which indicated the need to introduce measures to prevent bankruptcy. Now, the DIA is developing plans for the recovery of each of the five lending institutions. That is, what is the sanation of a banking group.
If the bank plays an important role in the economy of the countryor faced a temporary shortage of liquidity, the Central Bank may begin the procedure for improving the organization. In this case, the DIA assumes the role of temporary administrator. In parallel with the financial analysis, a competition of investors is announced, which could restore the solvency of the organization. That's what sanation of banks is.