In the second half of the twentieth century in the foodThe industry has become widely used for hydrogenated oils. They were considered a useful alternative to animal fats. But in recent years, scientists have found that this treatment turns useful vegetable oils into poorly digestible solid fats. However, until now most of the industrial products contain hydrogenated oils, because they were much cheaper than natural.
What it is
Animal fats are solid at room temperature. The same consistency and products made on their basis. Once in the body, they begin to melt. Vegetable oils are normally liquid, which is not always convenient on an industrial scale. Therefore, they are modified, turning into solid fats. Healthy unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils turn into saturated.
This occurs by heating under a highpressure and hydrogen treatment. As a result, margarine or so-called trans fats are obtained from vegetable oil. Such trans fatty acids are formed when a hydrogen molecule occupies a place in the fat molecule. It turns out oil with increased stability, which has a long shelf life. But the body can not absorb such refractory fats.
In industry, instead of the usualhydrogenated vegetable oil is used. After all, it is much cheaper and does not deteriorate longer. Therefore, products based on it can be stored for longer. In addition, such fats are always used for frying food in restaurants and fast food establishments. After all, they burn less, so you can fry more food on one portion of fat.
History of appearance
More than 100 years ago the French chemist Mezh-Muriecreated margarine. He was tasked with obtaining a cheap and resistant to spoilage of a butter substitute. It should have been used among the poor and the fleet. Inter-Murie received a surrogate of cow oil by treating bovine fat with chemicals and knocking it off with milk. The resulting product was called "margarine".
A few years later, another French scientistField Sabatier in the very end of the XIX century was discovered by the method of hydrogenation. But only at the beginning of the 20th century it was patented for the production of solid fats from liquid oils.
The first company that started the production of hydrogenated fats was Procter & Gamble. In 1909, she began to produce margarine based on peanut butter.
Where are the hydrogenated oils
Such fats are often used for productiondifferent ready-made food products. They must be in chips, corn flakes, semi-finished products. You can find them in cookies and crackers, donuts and sweets. Sauces, ketchups and mayonnaise often contain such fats, you can meet them even in some dairy products and ready-made porridges. All fast food is prepared with their participation: French fries, hamburgers, chicken nuggets.
Very soft butter is obtained whenits saturated fatty acids were converted to trans fats by hydrogen. The consumer believes that he is eating useful oil, but in fact gets harmful to health hydrogenated oils. Only recently on packages with such a product they began to write that it is a "spread", and not an oil. The popularity of this product is explained by its cheapness, and a large number of flavor-aromatic additives makes it tasty.
Harm to such fats
Despite the vegetable origin,Hydrogenated oils are harmful to health. Products containing them are advertised as a healthy food, because they are based on unsaturated vegetable fats. But when treated with hydrogen, they become saturated. Recent research scientists have shown that with frequent consumption of a large number of these fats in the body there are such changes:
- increases the amount of cholesterol;
- increased risk of cardiovascular disease;
- broken fat metabolism;
- the work of the brain worsens;
- the development of testosterone is impaired;
- quality of breast milk deteriorates;
- increased risk of obesity and diabetes;
- immunity worsens;
- the amount of prostaglandins decreases;
- allergic reactions develop.
Use in cosmetology
Trans fatty acids are widely usedin the food industry and in cosmetology. They have a lower melting point, they do not spoil for a long time and have a dense consistency. This makes such fats very popular in cosmetology. Hydrogenated castor oil is most often used. It is based on the substance PEG 40, which is used as an emulsifier and a solvent. Due to its properties, essential oils and fats dissolve easily in an aqueous medium.
This oil is used in tonics, lotions and cosmetic milk, air fresheners, salt scrubs, shampoos and conditioners, body sprays and alcohol-free deodorants.
Hydrogenated castor has few such properties:
- softens the skin;
- restores the water balance;
- cleans the dirt well;
- does not cause allergic reactions.
Features of sunflower oil
This is the most common fat used alreadymany years a man in food. Sunflower oil is an excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids, so it is good for health. But more recently, it has increasingly become its special treatment to increase shelf life and cost. This refined vegetable oil is also advertised as very useful. But it is obtained by evaporation and compounding with special chemicals. As a result, it has a large number of transgres.
If, on heating, it is combined with hydrogen,the hydrogenated sunflower oil is obtained. It is hard, refractory, and when fried it does not rancid and does not burn. Such fat is very in demand in public catering and food industry.
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, people have been widely used infood oil from soybean seeds. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and very healthy. Soybean oil is easily digested, normalizes the digestive system and strengthens the immune system. But a large amount of linolenic acid sometimes gives it an unpleasant taste and an instability when heated. Therefore, from the middle of the twentieth century, hydrogenated soybean oil was used.
In this process, it is possible to achieve a reductionamount of linolenic acid. Then, by freezing, solid fractions are removed from the oil. It turns out a wonderful salad oil, which is very popular all over the world. And from the products of its processing make margarine, spread and culinary fats, as they do not burn while frying and do not have an unpleasant smell.
This fat is widely distributed in the chemicalindustry. Rapeseed oil is used for the production of explosive mixtures, antifreezes, in the processing of paper and leather products. But recently it has been used in the food industry, especially often for the production of confectionery and alcoholic beverages. For this, hydrogenated rapeseed oil is used. It is known as food supplement E 441.
By treatment with hydrogen, it was possible to remove fromrapeseed oil is harmful to health erucic acid and get rid of bitterness. It was used as a stabilizer and emulsifier. This oil helps to maintain the consistency and shape of food products, mix components. Often this product is used in cosmetology, since it softens the skin and maintains its water balance.
But despite the fact that they advertiseHydrogenated rapeseed oil as a useful, it brings considerable harm to health. It contains trans fats that disrupt metabolism, reduce immunity and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity.
Since the end of the twentieth century,to apply oil from palm fruits. It has become popular because of its low cost and long shelf life. Natural palm oil contains both unsaturated, saturated fatty acids, vitamins, proteins. Despite this, it is considered not very useful. Although hydrogenated palm oil is especially harmful. It has recently been widely used in the food industry, especially in the production of dairy products, confectionery and baby food.
Do not think that if the product packagingit is written that the composition includes "vegetable oil", then it is really useful. Often, hydrogenated fats are added even in butter. Therefore, you need to look at the price of the product and its expiry date.