How and what to plaster the walls and whether you need it at alldo? Everyone who does repairs or builds a house faces this issue. However, this is a very important and responsible stage of finishing works, the quality of which will depend on the life of the plastered structure and the frequency of its repair. To entrust work to specialists or perform finishing yourself - depends on your ability and time, more often the owners of the premises themselves get down to business. So what is better to plaster the walls?
Types and forms of plaster mixtures
The construction market offers a wide range ofdry and ready mixes for finishing works. The advantage of ready-made solutions is convenience - you do not need to mix anything, opened the packaging and started work. But such material will cost more than the most common dry mixtures, which must be prepared independently. On all packages of semi-finished product there is a detailed instruction for preparing a working mixture, this process does not cause difficulties, even an inexperienced user can handle it.
According to the material, plasters are divided into 2 maingroups: cement and gypsum. Cement and cement-sand mortars are used for plastering of external walls, facades, industrial premises. Gypsum is excellent for interior decoration.
Kinds of plaster mixes on quality
- Simple. It is applied in several layers in rooms that do not require additional finishing. In general, these are cement and cement-sand mortars.
- Improved. Used for finishing residential, office, public premises. Apply such a special technology in several stages, the composition of this mixture includes improving the quality of the coating of the substance.
- High-quality. As a rule, these are dry or ready decorative plasters for finishing the walls of the smallest fraction using color and / or texture inclusions.
In modern furnish apply the combinedcovering walls when a brick-based or block-walled wall is applied with a base of cement-sand composition to smooth the surface, and on top of it lay a finer gypsum plaster under the wallpaper or high-quality decorative as a finish coat.
Do I need to plaster the walls?
There are many ways to give the walls andthe room is neat and well maintained. If the room has smooth walls and does not require leveling, as, for example, in cosmetic repairs, you can do without capital plastering, and confine yourself only to putty and / or priming for wallpaper or painting.
Facades can also be trimmed with othermethods (facing facade brick or the device of ventilated systems: panels, tiles on profiles). If the walls were previously plastered, assess the condition of the coating. In old houses, the plaster layer is removed completely or by fragments and a new layer is applied, sometimes a cement-sand mixture of a small thickness is applied over the top to update and level the surface for painting.
Who to entrust the plastering work?
Since the use of professional services(from 500 rubles / sq. m for cement and from 300 rubles / sq. m for gypsum plaster), because we plaster the walls with our own hands, if time permits. In addition, it will help to save the budget.
Stages of work
To begin with, we determine what kind of mortar plaster wall is more rational in a particular case:
- For facades and exterior walls it is advisableapplication of cement and cement-sand mortars. After solidification, such surfaces are well tolerated by harmful external influences of rain, high temperature changes, snow, mechanical shocks. Often plastered walls are covered with facade paints, then the building acquires a neat and elegant appearance, but here it is important to choose a quality paint that will also be resistant to external influences.
- Also suitable for interior decoration are compositions made of cement and sand. If the premises are industrial, the plastered walls are not subjected to additional finishing.
Walls in apartments and office premises covercement-sand mortar at the stage of construction or major repairs, when it is necessary to hide the large irregularities that occur when the blocks or bricks are unevenly laid. As a rule, such a coating serves as a basis for:
- Warming of walls, corners.
- Further shpatlevaniya gypsum compounds.
- Pasting wallpaper.
- Facing with tiles.
The better the plastering of walls in specific conditions, figured out.
Preparation of material and tools
Before starting work, it is necessary to stock up with the necessary set of tools and materials, so that during work there are no difficulties and hiccups. For work you will need:
- Dry mixture and water or ready-made solution.
- Drill with a nozzle mixer for mixing the mixture.
- A measure for water and steelyards.
- Stucco mesh to ensure the rigidity of a thick layer (in basements, facades).
- Dowels, self-tapping screws for fixing the mesh to the wall.
- Lighthouses (special profiles for smooth application of the solution along the whole plane of the wall).
- Scissors for metal for cutting mesh and lighthouses.
- Roulette for accurate measurement of dimensions and distances between beacons.
- Bubble level and plummet with thread.
- Perforator for drilling holes for dowels.
- Building pencil (thickened) for applying labels.
- Trowel for pouring mortar on the wall (with manual overturning).
- The rule for leveling the bulk of the solution between the beacons.
- Set of putty knives for leveling plaster.
- Poluterok for leveling cement-sand finish layer.
- Gloves for protection of hands.
- Watch to track the time between kneading and setting the mortar.
Preparation of the working surface
After you have decided what to plaster the walls,should begin to prepare the walls for the work process. Before starting work, the wall must be thoroughly cleaned of dust, dirt, foreign and sticking elements. If the surface was smooth and smooth, you need to make a notch for better adhesion of the solution to the wall.
Fastening of plaster grid
When plastering facades, cellars, whereit is necessary additional warming and drawing of a thick layer, on the primed basis fix plaster grid. It prevents the formation of cracks in the shrinkage of the building and does not allow the solution to creep.
There are several ways to fix the grid towall, but the most affordable in home use is this: the dowels are connected with a Z-shaped wire, so that the closest fit to the work surface is provided. The dowel-nails are fixed with a step of about 15 cm. The fastening is made from the bottom up.
In addition, the grid is fixed with smallcut pieces of metal beacon: fragments of a profile 2 cm long are screwed to the grid by screws. In this case, the beacon trim is a substitute for the dowel-nails.
This procedure will ensure uniform application of the solution throughout the entire plane of the wall.
The distance between neighboring beacons should be several centimeters shorter than the length of the rule.
The marking starts from the corner at a distance of 15-20 cm. On the drawn vertical line make holes for the dowels. Further, with the help of a level or plummet, put the dowels on the screws in the same plane, so that the wall is flat without any changes.
Further, on the line between the fasteners,a small amount of solution for fixing the beacons, then by pressing the rule set the beacon in the self-tapping screws. The protruding solution is smeared or cleaned. After installing several beacons, check the smoothness of the installation. A few hours later the wall is ready for plastering.
Technology of plastering walls
Consider how to plaster the walls with cementsolution. We prepare the solution according to the instructions on the package. To do this, we use bezmen and a measure for water to accurately observe the proportions of substances. Mixing is done with a drill with a mixer.
Plaster walls on the lighthouses as follows: by means of a trowel, we put the mortar on the wall evenly over the entire plane and, with the help of the rule, level it. With the help of spatulas we correct small irregularities. If you want to apply a large layer of solution, you need to do this in several stages in thinner layers, otherwise the stacked thick layer will fall off or run off.
If no further finishing is expected,it is desirable to make a grout. For this, the same solution is diluted with water to a creamy state, applied to a dried plaster and rubbed with a half-wedge.
If the subsequent finish is meant(putty or immediately wallpapering), dried plastered surface is sanded with a sandpaper to remove possible unevenness and marks from spatulas and primed with special compounds.
The above technology describes how to plaster the walls with a cement-sand mortar. Other types of plaster coatings are applied in a similar way.
Now consider how to plaster the wall with plaster based on gypsum.
Unlike cement mortar, gypsumPlaster is often used as a finishing coat in the finish, since it has a thinner fraction and gives the walls an even, well-groomed appearance, it can be colored and textured.
Also, gypsum plaster can be applied asThe foundation for further finishing directly on the wall. In this case, the application technology remains the same: surface cleaning, priming, setting up beacons, applying a solution. Gypsum compounds are applied more easily than cement, it is easy to handle this work. Basically gypsum plasters are sold in the form of dry mixes, preparation of the working staff should not cause difficulties - everywhere detailed instructions are attached.
More often gypsum plasters make thin shpatlevanie cement-sand layer, preliminary it progruntovav.
Plastering the walls with our own hands alsodecorative compositions. Especially if you want to give the walls a unique pattern. There are special plastic compounds with which you can apply a variety of textures and ornaments.
The choice is yours
Than to plaster walls - a personal choice of everyone. The most important thing in choosing a material is to take into account the conditions in which it will have to serve so that there are no problems in operation. As you can see, cement mortars are universal and can serve anywhere, but with interior decoration they often require additional coating. The walls with cement-sand lining are guaranteed to withstand various suspended structures. Gypsum plaster will give your wall a neat, smoother appearance, it is easier to apply, but if it is chosen as the main layer, the suspension of the lockers can be difficult due to the softness of the gypsum, although it can withstand the picture.
In any case, the plastered surface always serves a long time, this way of finishing any walls and rooms is the simplest and most universal. Than to plaster walls - choose wisely!