One of the oldest building materials -ceramics - densely entered into the life of modern man. There are many other materials for floor and wall cladding, but in most cases, due to a wide range of performance characteristics, customers choose ceramic tiles.
The range of application of the material is almost unlimited - from the finishing of the working corner in the kitchen to the floors and walls in lobio fashionable hotels or exhibition halls.
Main properties of ceramic tiles
- Strength. According to the parameters of hardness and strength, the material leaves far behind reinforced concrete and cement. The described characteristic may not justify itself if mistakes were made during the laying process.
- Rigidity. Tiles are not deformed and do not bend at record high tensile loads. With the increase in the thickness of the product, its rigidity properties increase.
- Thermal conductivity and heat capacity. Ceramics almost immediately absorbs and conducts heat. This is due to the popularity of the choice of facing tiles for brick for finishing the fireplace or stove.
- Fire resistance and fire resistance. This property is another argument in favor of decorating fireplaces and stoves with the material described. It does not burn and protects the facing surface from ignition. The product does not emit toxic gases when heated.
- Antistatic and electrical insulating properties. The tile does not conduct an electric current, it will protect people and animals from being struck by static electricity (as happens when walking on synthetic surfaces - carpet, linoleum).
- Stability of color. To the action of sunlight, ceramics are insensitive. It does not fade, does not lose its brightness in comparison with paper wallpapers, plastic, fabric coverings.
- Hygiene. Tile on the apron is the best solution for the kitchen. On its surface, microbes and bacteria do not accumulate. This explains the popularity of this finishing material in the arrangement of operating and manipulative.
- Chemical resistance. Products are not susceptible to the action of reactive components (except for hydrofluoric acid).
- Decorativity. The variety of color and structural offer opens almost unlimited possibilities for interior design. Smooth glazed ceramic tiles will add coziness and elegance to the bathroom, neatness and aesthetics of the kitchen.
Recommendations for selection
When choosing a material, it is necessary to take into account some of the nuances:
- Incorrectly selected lighting can distort the color of the finish. The light of the yellow lamps, aimed at the blue tile, can give the walls a greenish shade.
- The assumption of an error in the selection of colors can affect the mood of tenants. The predominance of light tones in small rooms visually increases their area.
- Do not underestimate the reflection coefficient. To get rid of this phenomenon, it is necessary to make the facing of the walls with tiles of matte shades.
- For rooms in which the material will often become dirty, it is necessary to choose colors that will favorably hide this drawback - dark and grainy tones.
Bathroom tiles are the most suitable option. The coating will reliably protect the walls from the harmful effects of moisture, temperature changes and aggressive environments.
Bathroom - perhaps the only place in the house whereCeramics should be finished not only walls, but also the floor. Water, as is known, also grinds a stone, but with wood, plasterboard, paint and putty, it straightens even faster. Tile here is clearly a winner. In a room where a person flushes fatigue, stress and pollution, it must create an atmosphere of coziness and peace.
What are the requirements for finishingmaterial? Due to frequent contact with water and possible mechanical loads (in the form of shelves, hanging cabinets, etc.), it must have a low degree of water absorption, a minimum porosity and a dense structure.
Popular facing of walls with glazed tiles -a special coating gives the tile a brightness, glossy luster and imparts water-repellent properties. The list of advantages of the described type of material can be supplemented with high density, absence of cracks, resistance to alkalis and acids.
Tile for brick: sphere of application
The technology of making a simulation of bricks fromceramics has bestowed it with optimal properties for use in interior decoration of premises. Designers are ready to offer a lot of ideas for interior design, the simplest option is framing for door and window openings, various kinds of niches, mirrors rigidly fixed on the wall. Often described material is used as a tile on the apron for the kitchen.
To save on expensive imitation of bricks andTo give the room the original grace will allow the facing of one of its corners - the smaller the trim will have the symmetry, the more complete, realistic and natural the picture will be.
No less impressive will be the facing tile under the brick for the decoration of the wall fragment. This option is good for zoning, for example, the partition behind the TV.
If you combine several types of ceramics -imitation of red brick to finish one wall, and another, yellow or terracotta another, it will give the impression that when building two pieces of buildings are connected.
Tile for kitchen - a modern attribute of style
It is impossible to imagine a kitchen in a modernapartment without a luxurious facade. The latest materials and latest developments will help to elegantly and efficiently decorate the interior of the room. Before choosing a facing tile, you need to decide on the furniture and the design direction. It is important to understand that the tile intended for the kitchen will be exposed to fat, moisture and chemicals.
Selection of tiles depending on the chosen style of the kitchen
Adherent of modern style will approach tilefor the kitchen on the wall smooth, smooth and glossy. From complex intricate drawings, textures and frequent joints it is better to refuse. The ideal solution will be the simplicity of lines and the desire for uniformity.
"Business Card" country - invoice of naturalstone. It will be appropriate to hand-painted, tiles with chipped edges or broken into pieces. Trend of recent years - artificially aged finishing material. Priority colors: light brown, coffee with milk, beige, golden.
The task of the Mediterranean style is to transferEveryone who crosses the threshold of the room, in sun-drenched kitchens of Italy, Spain or France. In priority, painting, mosaic, complex textures. For tiling walls with tiles should choose bright shades of natural stones: cobalt blue or yellow-green.
What to look for when buying?
In the process of buying tiles on the wall for the kitchenit is necessary to estimate the coefficient of the glazed coating. The higher the value of this indicator, the less likely that cracks or chips will appear on the finishing material, thereby preserving a neat appearance for a long time. To avoid reflections and glare will help matte tile. The granular structure will hide the small dirt.
The kitchen is constantly changing the humidity, throughThe tile of steam will penetrate deep into the wall, leading to its gradual destruction. In order to minimize this outcome, it is necessary to choose a ceramic finishing material with a water absorption coefficient of not more than 5%.
How to calculate the required number of tiles?
When the issue of the design of the premises is closed,there comes a stage of calculating the necessary amount of materials for its implementation. To help the artists notepad, pencil and tape measure. The latter will be used to measure the area under the masonry.
Before the measurement of the wallmust be cleaned of old finishing materials, otherwise the calculation error significantly increases. For example, after plastering the surface, the working area of the wall will decrease, and after removing the old tile, on the contrary, it will increase.
To estimate the scale of potholes and bulges, it is necessary to represent the area of the room in the projection, so it will be easier to calculate the quantity of the required material.
Before tiling the brick wall, it is importantdetermine the presence and position of friezes, borders, etc. Data must be reflected on paper. Experts recommend: calculate the amount of tiles should be so that in the corners there were no pieces of ceramics.
The amount of finishing material for each wall is calculated separately. The use of pieces, if not avoided, is also reflected in the records.
Common technologies of cladding
In modern construction practice, the following technologies are used for wall tiling:
- Seam in the seam.
- Seam «herringbone».
- To the outbreak.
The seam stitch method is most often used in view ofits simplicity. Tile facing for walls is placed in a row. In order for the picture to be perfect at the end of the work, care should be taken to level the walls beforehand. An undeniable advantage of the technique is the minimum amount of cut tiles, the seams will turn out to be neat and even, both vertically and horizontally.
The implementation of the herringbone method is possible only whenwork with a rectangular tile. The essence of the technique in laying tiles cascade. When calculating the amount of material, it is necessary to take 5-7% more, in case of losses during transportation or packing.
The Diagonal Diagram is the most complex, but if tothe real master will put the hand, it is possible to achieve the effect of distorting the space, using a tile for the inner lining of walls of different shades and textures.
It is important to properly draw the diagonal, which will be used for laying, as well as prepare a cutting tool. The volume of material is calculated in two stages:
- It is necessary to calculate how many whole segments are required for the marked diagonals.
- Determine how much tile will have to be cut.
Technology of facing the walls with tiles in unisonassumes the displacement of each successive series by half the segment. It is executed both horizontally and vertically. Cleverly varying the tiles of different colors and textures, you can create a surface layer of any configuration.
Preparatory work. Instruments
Before proceeding with the cladding process, it is important to learn the correct order of the work, and also be prepared in advance for the difficulties that may arise during the work.
Initially, it is necessary to determine the volumeupcoming works. Perhaps, the facing will be preceded by auxiliary measures that will increase the time and budget of the repair. In most cases, removal of the old tile or other decorative material, as well as the leveling of the walls, is required.
Cladding of external walls with ceramic tiles is smallthan differs from internal works. They trim the facade of the building to give the building a unique look. For these purposes, ceramic granite is indispensable. The exterior of the house should be finished when the temperature outside the window exceeds 5 degrees Celsius. Otherwise, microdeformation can not be avoided.
In order to realize the facing, the following tools are required:
- low-power tile cutting machine;
- spatula spatula;
- straight spatula large;
- crosses-dividers assembly;
- liquid Nails.
Ways of wall lining
To date, there are three technologies for wall tiling:
- Cement solution.
- Adhesive compound.
- Liquid nails.
To make the finishing material secure and last longer, experts fill it with water for 7-9 hours. This time is enough for the fluid to fill all the pores of the tile.
Let's consider a way of facing of walls by a tile with the help of cement mortar.
At the first stage, the site is accurately marked. Vertically and horizontally stuffed reiki - strictly in level.
An important feature of the solution is a high drying speed, therefore, in order to maintain its performance properties, it should be diluted in small portions for 2-3 rows of tiles.
The next stage is laid lighthouse tiles,on which the function of the facing level will be assigned. Installation of each of them is made taking into account the thickness of the solution and the permissible pitch of 60 centimeters. You need to move from top to bottom. Tiles should be on the same level in the vertical and horizontal. Secure the guide cord to one of the resulting horizontal lines.
The wall tiles can be installed from the bottom up or from the top to the bottom.
For each tile apply a uniform layera small amount of solution. Use an even spatula. Remove excess surplus substance with toothed device. With a little effort, press the material against the wall, once again press in the center. To ensure that the seams are neat and uniform, plastic crosses are placed between us.
Cement in the finished form is applied to the wrong side of the tile. So that the solution does not penetrate outside, it is shaped like a pyramid with truncated edges. It is important that the edge of the tile touches the guide cord.
Press on the tile with a little effort. On the rail, which is superimposed on the finishing material from above, knock with a hammer.
You can exclude waviness by using a lighthousereiki. The described procedure is recommended after each fixed part, otherwise, due to the unevenness of the wall, the tile will have to be torn off and laid again. The verticality of the seam is easily determined with the aid of a plumb.
In the grooves between the tiles are placed special lining.
The solution completely dries in 24-33 hours. When the strength properties of the fastening component are confirmed, the pads are carefully removed, and the grooves are treated with grout mortar.
Wall tiling with adhesive solution
Before laying, you must select glue,suitable for a specific situation. For example, for facing tiles in the bathroom, you should choose a composition for interior finishing of premises with high humidity. There are ready-made dry mixtures or on a polyurethane basis. The latter is useful for ideally flat surfaces.
Walls are cleaned, leveled, primed. The marking on the wall is carried out using fixing rails and the building level.
The solution is applied to the back of the tile, it is applied to the wall. Tile should be crushed so that the mastic evenly distributed and pushed out the air.
When the first horizontal layer of the ceramic islaid out, it must be installed on a support rail. Use cord and plumb line. This will allow accurate material adjustments along the vertical and horizontal lines.