Apricot - in the south grew, as they say in the famousadvertising. Fortunately, modern breeding does not stand still and good cold-resistant hybrids are brought out. Already without much difficulty you can get apricot in Siberia. Growing a fruit tree does not cause difficulties, but it has some peculiarities. About them and talk.
Apricot ordinary in culture was introducedmillennia ago and almost all this time was considered solely as a plant for the south. It is not surprising: most varieties at best can transfer a short-term decrease in temperature to -30 ° C, and flower buds die already at -25 ° C. Thanks to the breeding of special varieties, it became possible to obtain apricot in Siberia. Cultivation and care for it - further in the text.
Great contribution to the work on the inferenceof district hybrids belongs to Siberians IA Baykalov. He used in his experiments apricot ordinary, manchurian, Siberian, as well as their forms and various varieties. The last two species are suitable for a severe climate. Fresh fruit is inferior in quality to its southern counterpart, but in canned, dried, dried form have excellent qualities.
Varieties of apricots for Siberia
- Siberian Baikalov. The tree grows to 3.5 m with a sprawling crown up to 4 m in diameter. It is characterized by rapid growth in the first few years after planting. Fruits of medium size, about 25 g with a slight blush, the flesh is fragrant, dense. The blossom begins in May, the average yield from the tree is 20 kg.
- Sayanskiy. The height of the tree is up to 3 m, fruit weighing 25-30 g of rounded shape, do not have a blush. Siberian apricot of this variety will give you a crop of up to 15 kg from one hybrid.
- Khabarovsk. The tree is strong with a sparse sprawling crown. The fruits are large, weighing up to 45 grams, of round-conical shape, slightly compressed laterally. Color is dark green with a slight blush.
- Northern Lights. Elite variety, blooming in the second decade of May. Fruits are rounded with a clearly pronounced seam, weighing 25-30 g with good taste. This is a late apricot. In Siberia, the cultivation is successful, the variety has a high resistance to frost even in winters with little snow.
- Mountain Abakan. The tree grows to 3 m, it has good resistance to frost. Fruits have a mass of 25-30 g, a dense orange flesh.
In addition to the five most famous varieties, it is also worth noting the following: Academician, Amur, Akbashevsky, East Siberian, Beauty, Laureate, Pervenets, Spicy, Triumph Northern, etc.
Place for apricot and soil
The answer to the question of how to grow apricots inSiberia, largely depends on the correct choice of soil. Keep in mind that the tree will grow poorly on a heavy substrate, which is bad for moisture and air. Therefore, choose for him the highest places on the site, lowlands and hollows are unsuitable. A stably high crop is harvested when planted on the slopes of mountains, hills, hills. Apricot is a light-loving plant, therefore does not like thickened planting, observe the correct distance.
The wood is frost-hardy. Siberian apricot freely tolerates a drop in temperature to -40 ° C. From the negative sides of all varieties it is worth noting a short period of rest, so the flower and growth buds wake up early and can fall under recurrent frosts.
Planting Apricot in the Garden
All gardeners should remember one simplerule on how to plant apricot in Siberia. Cultivation involves planting on a hill and in no case in a pit for irrigation. Deepening of the root neck can lead to its decay. Plant trees on the mounds. It must be flat to protect the roots from freezing. Use a fertile soil mixture with the addition of humus and a small amount of lime. Experts recommend planting several apricot varieties at once, so that cross pollination is carried out, and this, in turn, is the key to a good harvest.
After landing for the first two years, the circumferential circlenear the tree must be kept in a clean state (weeding from weeds) and periodically loosened it, but shallow (6-8 cm), so as not to damage the root system.
Watering and fertilizing with fertilizers
Fruit trees are hygrophilous.They need regular watering, especially demanding apricot seedlings and plants after transplanting to a new location. The second half of the summer is calmer. Watering during this period is needed only if a drought occurs, otherwise excessive moisture will lead to a strong growth of shoots that will not have time to ripen to winter.
Fertilizers should be applied to the soil.If it is sufficiently poor, then it should be done at regular intervals once a year. Since the age of two, apricot has been fed in early spring and late autumn with complex mineral preparations. Organic fertilizers in the form of peat, compost, humus are introduced as necessary, but at least once every 3-5 years.
Care of a tree
From an early age, the trees begin to whiten.The work is carried out in late autumn and early spring. Use a mixture of whitewash with a little addition of copper sulfate for this. Damage due to frost and wounds on the trunks are covered with var. To protect the fruit trees from rodents, frosts and scorching spring sun from autumn to April, wrap the bases of skeletal branches and sticks with fiberglass.
The crown of the tree is formed naturally, without interference. Siberian apricot very painfully tolerates pruning, so it is better to exclude it.
Apricot from a stone
The seed method of reproduction is permissible for Siberian varieties. In order for the process to be successful, use several tips:
- Take a bone only from the zoned tree. Fruits choose ripe, large, without flaws and defects. After you get the seed, put it in the water for a day.
- Bone plant directly into the ground or in seedlingscups. On the site for these purposes, choose a place protected from the winds and well illuminated by the sun. Distance between the holes is 10-15 cm. After planting, pour a lot of plentifully.
- Care for seeded apricots is in the periodic weeding of weeds, abundant watering and loosening of the soil.
- Young plants are transplanted after they reachtwo years of age. The process of growing apricot from the bone is not fast. The first harvest with a favorable outcome of the events you will receive only 5-6 years after planting.
Diseases of apricot
A fruit tree is subject to somediseases that affect and damage flowers, leaves, fruits and skeletal branches of the plant. The most common and harmful are the following: moniliosis, cytosporosis, клястероспориоз, bacterial cancer, verticillosis, as well as leaf curl and a brown spot on them. Diseases of apricot are best warned than after a long and painful treatment. Use twice a year (in the spring, when the kidneys swell, and in autumn after falling leaves), 1% solution of the Bordeaux liquid. Of the prevention measures should also be noted:
- cleaning, disinfection and puttying of wounds on the bark of a tree;
- collection of carrion and diseased fruit with subsequent destruction;
- collection and burning of diseased leaves;
- periodic treatment of the whole tree with special preparations or lime.
In addition, apricot seedlings and adult treesare susceptible to pest attack (similar to plum damage): moth, aphids, moth, etc. In a timely manner, treat plants with "Actellicom", "Decis" or other preparations.
Planting apricots in Siberia - this is already quitehabitual phenomenon. If you decide to have this sunny and bright fruit tree in your garden, then there are a few things to consider. First, think about whether you have a place on the site that is suitable for him. Secondly, responsibly refer to the selection of the variety, comparing all the indicators with the weather conditions in your area. It was not bad to consult with experienced gardeners and specialists, one head is known to be good, but two are better.