Apple tree is an amazing tree, pleasingdazzlingly gentle flowering in the spring, bringing a generous harvest in the summer and covering the earth with a carpet of colorful leaves in the fall. Apple trees, care and pruning which are held regularly and at the right time, properly develops, is not susceptible to diseases and pests, brings many fruits.
For this tree, it is very important to successfully form the crown. Therefore, pruning is the most important part of caring for the apple tree. Usually it is carried out in the spring, before the beginning of the sap flow, or in the autumn, in October.
The usual time for spring pruning is March-April. The tree is inspected after the winter, all knots and broken branches are removed. Removed rotten, damaged branches and bark. If the tree is slightly frozen, the pruning is carried out as usual. If the damage is severe, the procedure should be postponed until the beginning of the growing season.
Cut out branches growing inside the crown, weakinternal shoots. Also it is necessary to remove adjoining branches, which strongly thicken the crown and prevent normal growth. The crown is thinned, made more symmetrical, if necessary, the height of the tree is reduced.
All manipulations with the tree crown in the summer are conductedin addition to the basic spring procedures. Pruning apple trees in the summer is considered ancillary and consists in breaking out unnecessary shoots, prishchipke, removal of dead fruiting branches and more detailed formation of the crown.
First, pinching is done (pinching). When the growths of skeletal branches reach 20 cm and 5-6 leaves grow on them, the points of growth are removed with a knife.
Pruning apple trees in the summer is carried out later than pinching,when the increments of the current year are lignified and grow to 65-70 cm. After cutting the lignified part of the shoot, the kidneys located at the cut develop. Shoots are characterized by intensive growth, have a good angle of retreat and manage to mature before the end of vegetation.
The first years after planting pruning apple trees in the summer is not carried out. In old trees, summer pruning is carried out at the beginning of June. The strongest shoots of the continuation are left, shoots-competitors are removed.
Pruning apple trees in the summer can affect the yield of the next year, forcing the tree to bloom later. Sometimes it is carried out in the event that for some reason it was not carried out in the spring or autumn.
In autumn, the main pruning of apple trees is carried out. The timing is from the beginning of the fall leaf to the onset of frost so that the slices can heal. This is the ideal time to prepare the tree for the new season, its rejuvenation and the formation of the crown. Withered and broken branches are removed. Cut shoots, grown at an acute angle, and weak branches.
When the fall is immediately carried out firstpruning apple trees. A seedling without a crown is cut at a level that exceeds the height of the stem by several cm. If there is a crown at the tree, it is necessary to leave no more than 5 branches. The central conductor should be 20 cm above the main branches. The tops of the main branches are cut at one level. Minor branches can be deflected to a drooping state in order to shorten or cut them later.
While the tree has not entered into fruiting, pruning should be minimal.