Of course, it's not a secret for anyone that it's a DaySaint Valentine's? Love is in the air, and people admit to feelings. For this, you do not even need to say a word, you can all say with eloquent gaze, and you will undoubtedly be understood. Romance, flowers, gifts, heart-shaped candies and burning loving eyes ... And do you know where and when Valentine's Day came to us?
history of the holiday
So, whose is this holiday and why is it called that?
This story begins in 269 in RomeThe Empire. Then the state was ruled by the severe emperor Claudius II. And the main goal of the Empire was the conquest of lands. The military commander faced the problem of shortage of soldiers in the army for military campaigns. And Claudius II found this explanation - marriages. The emperor came to the conclusion that the legionaries, who are waiting at home for wives and children, are less interested in the victories of the Motherland. Where do they think about conquest, when it is necessary to take care of the support of the family. And Claudius II found a wonderful way, he thought, the way out: he issued a decree forbidding marriages. So he tried to support the soldier's morale.
However, the ban on the creation of the family could notprevent men from falling in love. And, fortunately for the legionaries, there was a man in the empire who supported them. It was a Christian priest from the city of Terni - Valentin. Despite the strict ban on the emperor, he secretly held in his church the ceremonies of weddings of legionnaires with their beloved. Perhaps Valentin was a real romantic, as he not only joined people by marriage, but also helped lovers in every way: helped to compose gentle messages and gave flowers on behalf of the legionaries to the subjects of their passion.
Of course, everything came out and it became knownTo the Emperor. And since in the Roman Empire the law was above all, the priest's activity was sharply suppressed. Valentine was put behind bars. And soon the emperor signed a decree on the execution of the priest.
The last days of Valentine, which he spent inprison imprisonment, are enveloped in a halo of romance. They say that the daughter of the chief of the guard was in love with him. However, Valentine, who made a vow of celibacy, could not answer her feelings. On the last night before the hanging on February 13, he sent her a letter in which he told of his feelings. The girl read the message only after the execution of her lover.
Later, the Catholic Church found Valentine a Christian martyr who died for his faith, and recognized as a saint. And in 496, Pope Gelasius I announced that on February 14 - Valentine's Day.
However, the reform of the divine service in 1969Valentine was seized from the Catholic liturgical church calendar. The same was done with some other saints, about whose life there was no reliable information. However, even before that time the church did not particularly approve of the celebration of this day.
Celebrations of love
St. Valentine's Day is a holiday that has existed for more than 16 centuries. However, since the 18th century and much earlier, the most diverse national celebrations of love have been known.
There is a version that the first was Romanfestival of eroticism of Lupercalia. It was held in honor of the goddess Februata, who was considered a symbol of "feverish" love. The purpose of this celebration was to find its second half. Therefore, after its completion, many new marriages were created.
The day before the feast of Lupercalia, whichwas held on February 15, celebrating the triumph of the Roman goddess of motherhood, marriage and women - Juno. On this day, all the unmarried girls had to write a love letter and put it in a big urn. And men - to draw a letter. It was believed that every man had to take care of that beauty, whose passionate and passionate message he got.
In Ancient Greece, the holiday was called Panurgeia. It was a festival organized in honor of the deity of Pan, who was considered the patron of the herds, fields and fertility. Pan was portrayed in the form of a little merry fellow who plays the pipe and pursues beautiful nymphs with his love.
All of the above is a pagan contribution to the DaySaint Valentine's. Whose holiday served as a basis, it is not possible to determine. Most likely, the pagan traditions of different nations were reflected in the modern celebration.
At the end of XVII century English court chroniclerwrote that Valentine's Day is a holiday during which lovers can exchange ardent notes, present each other with various gifts such as rings, candies, gloves, cakes, etc. But it was an important condition: all souvenirs are in the form of a heart. Whether it was in fact, it is unknown, but most likely, it was from there that the tradition began to send special messages on such a day - valentines.
Today, this word means love letters in the form of hearts. Valentine can not be signed. The recipient himself must guess from whom it is.
On Valentine's Day people want to show theirfeelings and tenderness of the other half. They give roses, symbolizing love, send lovely cards, make an offer. It is a holiday of love all over the world. But each country has its own traditions of Valentine's Day.
Holiday in France and Italy
On February 14, both the French and Italians traditionally decided to give flowers and gifts. The difference is, perhaps, in the choice of the latter.
In France, the best gifts on Valentine's Dayare considered jewels. In an extreme case, fit and costume jewelry. The French first invented original and popular today in the whole world congratulations on Valentine's Day - rhymed quatrains. France is a country of love. And its inhabitants justify this name. February 14 is an abundance of flowers, gifts, pink color and confessions of love.
The Italian holiday is a sweet day. Traditionally, it is customary to make sweet pleasure to your loved ones. Therefore, cakes, sweets, chocolate, yoghurts and other goodies are used.
Love and Germany
What is Valentine's Day in Germany? You will be surprised. But February 14 for the Germans is a holiday of the mentally ill.
On this day, throughout the country, divine services are held,on which people can pray for the health of mentally unhealthy relatives, and also for the peace of Valentine's soul. The orderlies decorate the wards and corridors of psychiatric hospitals with scarlet ribbons. Therefore, if you see a beautifully decorated building on this day, you should know - it's a "psychiatric hospital".
But recently German youthimitate the rest of the world. And let informally, but still celebrate the holiday of love. In Germany, to the traditional European symbols of the celebration is added a pig. In the course are all sorts of figurines in the shape of this animal, chocolate sweets, soft toys and much more.
Celebrations in the US and Canada
Children are also happy on Valentine's Day. The history of the holiday is a script of all school productions and plays. The guys change into angels and carry valentines addressed to both classmates and teachers. By the way, in the United States on this day there are a lot of weddings. Especially popular is the famous city of Las Vegas, located in the state of Nevada.
In Canada, on February 14, a girl can dobeloved man offer. And if he decides to refuse, he is waiting for sanctions: from fine to imprisonment! This does not apply to those members of the stronger sex who have already found their second half. But if a person is free and decided to refuse a lady in love with him, he will be dragged into a "kutuzka".
Holiday of love in Britain
Real English gentlemen give theirto the ladies of the rose. And certainly scarlet. And women who have not yet found their lover, prefer to do fortune-telling. It is believed that if the morning of February 14 to stand near a window and look at an empty street, then the first passer-by who appears on the horizon will look like a future husband. If the girl has time to call him, he can even become one.
The English are famous for their quirks. They congratulate not only their second halves, but also pets. Special love is enjoyed by horses and dogs. February 14 in pet stores can buy food in the form of hearts to please their pets.
Love Day in Japan
This holiday in Japan is something like our dayFebruary 23. Japanese men on this day receive far more gifts than women. Girls present their beloved with wallets, razors and obligatory chocolate "Honmei". Such sweet gifts have appeared thanks to the largest confectionary factory with the similar name. It is believed that the chocolate "Honmei" can only be given to the most beloved man. So this is a kind of recognition.
In Japan, on February 14,competition. Young people rise on a special platform and shout words of love to their girls, as far as they can. Of course, the winner is waiting for a valuable prize.
Love traditions of Denmark and Holland
On this day across Denmark pass festiveparties devoted to St. Valentine and all lovers. There are numerous concerts, game shows, exhibitions. The entire country is celebrating. Danes have an interesting tradition. On Valentine's Day, men are sent a dried flower, with which the lover is associated. So the girls learn a lot about themselves and about the tastes and fantasies of their chosen ones.
If you really want to get married, you need to go toHolland. There exists a tradition that on February 14, if the girl made an offer, she can not be denied. Of course, it is unlikely that it will be possible to tie a man by marriage to his will. But even if the offer is refused, then there is the opportunity to ask the chosen one for a silk dress. And any brand and for any price. No man can refuse this. The only condition is that the dress should be red. It is believed that only this outfit can comfort an outcast woman. So the Dutch in any case will not remain in the loser.
In Estonia and Finland it's Friendship Day. Of course, lovers also celebrate it. But the peculiarity of the holiday lies in the fact that postcards and gifts are also received by real friends. This is done so that almost everyone can join the holiday, not only happy lovers.
Anyway, but on this day, as in allworld, people send valentines, cute little things, gifts, stuffed animals, candies and other presents, made in the form of hearts. Flowers are less popular here, since practical Finns and Estonians prefer the material expressions of their feelings of love and friendship.
The prohibition of love
Iran and Saudi Arabia - the only in allthe world's country where the Valentine's Day is officially banned. Traditions of the holiday are considered here as pernicious and pernicious, confusing young minds. In Saudi Arabia there is even a Commission for the Prevention of Sin and the Introduction of Virtue. It was she who issued the decree banning the celebration of Valentine's Day. The Commission came to the conclusion that "this Western holiday extols the original sin of man."
Therefore, all the shops and supermarkets of the country 14February does not have the right to trade in flowers, valentines, plush toys and all sorts of other attributes of the holiday. And anyone who decides to celebrate this celebration will face a huge fine.
Holiday of lovers in Russia
As mentioned above, in Russia Day of Alllovers celebrate not so long ago. However, the holiday has already won many people. Especially to those who are in love. In Russia, already had their festive traditions. This day is perceived by the triumph of joy and love. In all corners of the country, lovers send valentines, present gifts and flowers, arrange romantic evenings with candles and meetings under the moon.
By the way, in Russia there is also his Saint's dayValentine. The Orthodox holiday is called Valentine's Day. The Russians celebrate it on July 8. This holiday is a tribute to the legendary love of Fevronia and Paul. And in 2008 it was declared the official Day of Family, Fidelity and Love.