Speech is the most important achievement of a person. With the help of sounds, words, expressions, additional gestures and intonation, you can communicate with other people. Correct communication is called a culture of speech. It is the ability to correctly express, taking into account certain conditions, the purpose of the conversation, as well as the use of all language means (intonation, vocabulary, grammar). The sound culture of speech is the general ability to communicate with each other.
What is a sound culture of speech?
It is a part of human speech communication. The sound culture of speech combines the oral design of words. This layer is responsible for correct pronunciation of sounds, expressions, speed and loudness of speech utensils, timbre of voice, rhythm, pauses, logical stresses, correct functioning of speech and hearing aids, and the availability of a suitable surrounding speech environment.
The education of the sound culture of speech promotestimely and rapid development of speech skills in preschool children. During the development of speech, speech therapists simultaneously develop vocabulary, grammatically connected speech. Classes help children to monitor breathing during pronunciation, adjust its clarity, develop voice control skills slowly and intonationally true.
How to raise the sound culture of speech?
The formation of correct speech in the child is reducednot only to develop the skills of correct pronunciation of sounds that are dealt with by speech therapists, but also to solve a number of important tasks. Experienced teachers work in the kindergarten with children. As a rule, they develop the sound culture of the child's speech in the following directions:
- They bring up the correct sound production.
- Form the clarity and clarity of the pronunciation of words that correspond to the linguistic norms of the Russian language.
- Develop in the process of studying a moderate speech pace and proper breathing in pronunciation.
- Educate intonationally correct pronunciation of sounds and words.
- Develop auditory attention in children.
Sound culture of speech and its realizationis carried out in two directions: from the development of different perceptions (rhythm, tempo, intonation, strength, speed) and the speech motor. In order to bring up a speech culture in a child, teachers choose the following forms of work:
- Self-study, in which children communicate with each other.
- Classes with specialists of preschool institutions.
- Work in the form of games, exercises.
- Music lessons.
Development of the sound culture of speech in preschoolinstitutions continues not only in special occupations, but also for walking, morning speech gymnastics. Teachers use onomatopoeic words, poems, tongue twisters, visual material, cartoons, presentations and much more.
Age of the formation of sound speech in the child
It is best to start with a child inage, when he begins to actively talk and repeat words. The formation of a sound culture of speech is an important stage in the preparation of children for school. It is important not to miss this moment and help the child, together with the teachers of the kindergarten, to understand the science of the correct sound reproduction.
Since birth, a person has the abilitydistinguish sound vibrations - this is called biological hearing or perception. In humans, sounds are recognized with the help of the outer ear, the tympanic membrane, the auditory ossicles and the inner ear. Sound vibrations form the excitation of nerve endings and transmit information to the brain. Auditory attention is a special characteristic of the possibilities of human perception, which helps to focus on sounds, activity or object. For example, when a child stops his attention on an irritant, he gets a clearness of sound sensations. If the auditory perception is disturbed in children, this leads to a decrease in attention, curiosity. The child often cries, flinches with sounds and extraneous stimuli.
How to choose the correct speech therapist?
Find a good specialist is not an easy task. Especially if the child has serious problems with speech. When choosing a speech therapist, consider the following points:
- Ask a speech therapist for qualifications and work experience. Study the portfolio.
- Ask the speech therapist if he has solved a specific problem.
- Find out the number and cost of classes.
- Try to understand whether a person is at ease, whether the child is comfortable with the speech therapist.
- How high are the guarantees of a positive result.
Remember that the high price of classes with a speech therapist does not guarantee a quality work done.
The lesson on the sound culture of speech is aimed atteaching preschool children clearly and correctly articulate. The sound "y" is taught to pronounce smoothly and for a long time on exhalation. Teachers watch for children to pronounce it with varying loudness and intonation. Classes for sound training are in the form of games and special exercises that help to learn how to pronounce the sound "y" correctly. Exercise - to fold the lips with a pipe and pull them forward prepares the articulation for pronunciation. In addition, teachers sing songs with children, perform choral repetitions of sounds and much more.
The sound is "z". His mastering is also in the form of games and songs. It is studied after preschoolers learn to cope with the sound of "c". The peculiarity of his study is that in addition to articulation, vocal cords are included in the work. Usually, the sound "h" requires training in front of the mirror. During work the teacher speaks with children tongue twisters, makes offers. The development of sound culture is closely related to phonemic hearing.
Education of sound speech in preschool children
The sound culture of speech includes the correctdiction, sound production, intonation, tempo, gestures, facial expressions, tonality of speech, posture, motor skills during the conversation of the child. If you systematically deal with the education of pronunciation of sounds, preschoolers will find it easier to learn in the future. That is why the method of education is the teacher's decision the following tasks:
- The development of the mobility of the tongue and lips during the sound reproduction.
- Formation of the ability to maintain the lower jaw in the right position.
- Attention to breathing during speech.
As a rule, preschoolers master sound speechwithout effort, if its time to educate. During this period, children borrow words and sounds imitating the method. After all, phonetic hearing is pawned at an early age. It is important not to miss the moment and direct the development of the child in the right direction.
Training in the middle group
Sound culture of speech in the middle grouppreschoolers (age from 4 to 5 years) consists of speech hearing and breathing, which are the beginning of the origin of speech. Education in this group begins with the knowledge that was obtained earlier. The paramount task of the teacher is to teach the children clearly and correctly pronounce the sounds of the Russian language. The specialist pays special attention to hissing and whistling sounds, teaches correctly to pronounce phrases and complex words, forms a skill of intonational expressiveness. In addition, the speech therapist brings up a high level of development of speech hearing in children, which will help them to independently change the tone of their voice, to distinguish intonation words in sentences. The sound culture of speech in the middle group is also directed to the development of speech breathing, phonemic perception, voice and articulation apparatus.
Training in the senior group
Sound culture of speech in the older group (age6-7 years) continues the formation of previously acquired skills. Teachers strive to improve the development of the articulatory apparatus of the child, monitor the pronunciation of sounds with the help of various exercises, develop a phonemic hearing, learn to determine sound places in a word, and intelligently use intonation and the pace of speech. Speech therapists also eliminate speech defects or lack of sound pronunciation, improve their skills, learn patterns of correct literary pronunciation of the words of their native language. The sound culture of speech in the senior group should develop a good phonemic hearing in children, teach them how to read words, sentences and small texts, understand the differences between terms, independently make sentences and conduct sound analysis. Completing the training in the senior group, children are able to distinguish between vowels and consonant letters, sounds, and their designations. As a rule, teachers prepare preschool children for the preparatory stage, which begins before entering school.
What is a didactic game?
Didactic games in kindergarten are educationalclasses that help preschoolers get new knowledge in the course of exciting games. They are distinguished by the existence of rules, a clear structure and an evaluation system. Didactic games solve a number of tasks set by the teacher. There is a whole technique that allows in such a form to develop phonetic hearing in the child. The didactic method gradually brings up the correct pronunciation of the sounds of the Russian language and the ability to listen. All games have certain tasks, which are reduced to singling out sounds at the beginning, middle and end of the required word. For example, the game "Sound Hide and Seek" is intended for children under the age of six. This is an independent game for the group, which is controlled by the teacher. The goal of the game is the development of attention and phonetic hearing. The ball is used as auxiliary items. The presenter needs to guess a word in which there is a certain sound, for example "z". Then he throws the ball in turn to the guys, uttering different words in which this sound is present. The task of children to catch the ball with the words of the desired sound, and the rest of the "words" to beat.
What are the problems of the development of sound speech?
Modern children are much more likely to suffer from problemsformation of sound and speech. The reason for this - computerization, lack of communication with peers and parents. Often parents provide the child to themselves, as well as toys, TV, gadgets. Specialists advise reading books with children, learning rhymes, counters, tongue twisters. The formation of the sound culture of speech is associated with the development of fine motor skills of the fingers. In order to entice and attach the child to learning, it is necessary to give as often as possible to the child tasks to build a house of cubes, to assemble a mosaic and a colored pyramid. Raise the sound of the child need to constantly. In kindergarten, during games, walks in the park. Talk with the baby, pay attention to interesting details, for example, the color of the leaves and plants, count the birds, consider the flowers. Without an integrated approach, the formation of correctly delivered speech is impossible. Both parents and teachers of pre-school institutions should participate in this.