In the age of electronic gadgets and fast food, the problemEvery third inhabitant of the planet worries about obesity. It is clear that a low-active lifestyle and malnutrition are the main factors in the development of this state in an adult. But why is it more and more often, according to medical statistics, cases of significant excess weight in children under the age of one year are recorded? What are the causes of this pathology? How is obesity (parathrophy) treated in children treated? The answers to these questions are in the article.
What is paratrophy?
Often, the above described condition of babies is calledobesity. But from the medical point of view, such an assertion is incorrect. Indeed, paratrophy is a disease characterized by being overweight. But in a child of the first year of life, this condition has certain characteristics that it is important to take into account when performing diagnostics and developing a treatment regimen for a small patient. So, the doctor can diagnose "paratrophy" in the event that the body weight of the child exceeds 10% of the generally accepted norm for a specific age period.
Most often this condition is diagnosed withusing measurements and laboratory methods at the age of 3-5 months. In six months has already expressed symptoms of paratrophy in children. A photo of a child suffering from such a pathology is presented below.
Types of paratrophy
In medicine, there are two types of this state.
The first is simple obesity,which arose as a result of fattening the kid with proteins. The difficulty of preventing and treating such a disease is that usually adults seek medical help too late. This is due to the fact that outwardly at the initial stages of development of paratrophy the child looks quite healthy, "a well-fed hero". Parents of such children can not enjoy the excellent appetite of crumbs and its calm disposition (which in fact is a lack of mobility resulting from an excess of body weight). But without changing the diet gradually the state of the child will deteriorate. In this case, concomitant diseases can occur, in particular, violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract often develop, the blood formula becomes worse, the load on the liver and kidneys increases. Without the necessary treatment, this disease quickly progresses, contributing to the formation of acidosis, rickets, anemia, allergies.
The second type is carbohydrate overfeed. It arises as a result of excess in the diet of the child of cereals, juices, cookies. In this condition, there is a significant decrease in skin turgor, puffiness, pallor and "marbling" of the skin. The baby has a frequent loose stool and a predisposition to vomiting. This type of paratrophy leads to a violation of absorption of nutrients, and, therefore, causes hypovitaminosis, hypocalcemia, rickets.
There are three degrees of paratrophy in children:
- the first is diagnosed if the child has 10 to 20% of excess body weight;
- when the second is overweight is 25-35%;
- the third is characterized by indicators of 40-50%.
The difference in the degree of paratrophy in children is manifestedand in external signs. Thus, in the initial stage of the disease, the toddlers have fat folds in the thigh and chest area. Whereas in the second and third degree of paratrophy, excess weight is distributed throughout the body. Thus, by measuring the circumference of the abdomen and chest of the child, it can be noted that the first indicator by 3-5 centimeters will exceed the second.
The causes of parathrophy
Why do young children have problems?problems with being overweight? The main cause is a malnutrition. It is important to note that in this case the diet is important not only for the baby, but for his mother.
Thus, the paratrophy of children up to a year is usually associated withnon-observance of a diet by a woman during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The use of a future mother in a large number of flour products, sweet, fatty foods often leads to excess weight of the child during the period of intrauterine development. In addition, children who have a large body weight at birth are prone to rapid weight gain in the future (from 1 to 1.5 kg per month).
Introduction of complementary foods or transition to artificialfeeding can lead to an aggravation of the problem. Thus, frequent feeding, exceeding recommended amounts, incorrect choice of mixtures are factors that provoke the development of such a disease as paratrophy in children of the first year of life.
Also, the cause of the pathological condition may be a violation of the child's day regimen. In particular, restriction of activity of the kid, infrequent walks on fresh air can cause a set of excess weight.
In rare cases, the paratrophy of children under one year is a consequence of various diseases associated with a metabolic disorder in the body.
What is dangerous?
The popular belief in the people thatif the child is well-fed, then he is healthy, is fundamentally untrue. Paratrophy in young children is difficult from the point of view of treatment and is dangerous to health. Despite the fact that obvious signs of deterioration of well-being in the child in most cases is not observed, this disease causes a number of accompanying problems. First of all, there are violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which, in turn, leads to a deterioration in the absorption of nutrients. As a consequence, hypovitaminosis, anemia, acidosis develops. The lack of necessary for the growth and development of substances is the trigger mechanism for the formation of rickets. In addition, as a result of violations of metabolic processes in the body, immunity decreases.
The diagnosis and treatment of paratrophy inchildren and the fact that adults often do not consider the overweight of a baby a symptom of a serious illness, grandmothers do not get tired of admiring a plump pink-cheeked granddaughter. Therefore, parents often do not make efforts to eliminate the causes that led to the development of such a condition, violate the doctor's recommendations, refuse additional examination. These factors exacerbate the existing problem, thereby complicating its solution in the future.
Symptoms of the disease
A marked symptom of this condition is the characteristic physique of the child:
- fat folds on the arms, legs, chin;
- an enlarged abdomen compared to the thorax;
- short neck.
In addition, the signs of paratrophy are:
- decreased muscle tone;
- loss of elasticity of the skin;
- pallor, dry skin;
- stool, abdominal pain;
- lack of mobility, apathy;
- presence of diaper rash in skin folds;
- sleep disturbance;
- propensity to allergic reactions;
Thus, it has pronounced symptomsparatrophy in young children. The photo below shows such signs of the disease as the appearance of excess fatty deposits and the formation of skin folds.
Diagnosis "paratrofiya" can be put pediatrician based on the results of measurements of the child and correlate them with the established norms.
In addition, to confirm the disease, andalso for the detection of concomitant disorders, a blood test is administered. Important indicators for assessing the condition of the baby are the level of insulin, cholesterol, hemoglobin, vitamins B5 and B12, folic acid, iron.
What specialists to contact?
During the first year of life, the baby mustregularly observed at the pediatrician. If this condition is met, the doctor has the opportunity to promptly identify the problem and decide whether to refer the patient to a narrow specialist. So, depending on the condition of the child, you may need to consult an allergist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, immunologist.
Treatment of the disease
The doctor confirmed the presence of the disease asto cope with such a state? Paratrophy in young children requires long-term treatment. First of all, an individual diet is developed: the amount of food and the frequency of feeding decrease. If the baby is breastfed, the mother needs to revise her diet. The woman will need to reduce the consumption of fatty, sweet foods, "empty" carbohydrates.
With artificial feeding pediatriciansrecommend the use of acidophilic mixtures. So, for children up to six months, such as "Malyutka", "Rostok-1" are suitable. Babies from 6 to 12 months should choose "Acidolac", "Beef".
To milk children can be mineral water without gas or carotene mixture.
With paratrophy, a special massage is recommended,which can be performed by a nurse at home. Such a procedure will improve blood flow, help remove excess fluid from the body, accelerate metabolic processes. Sessions should be conducted every day for 10-15 minutes.
It is known that to reduce weight,increased physical activity. Therefore, special gymnastics, breathing exercises, regular walks in the fresh air, moving games will speed up the process of treatment, improve the results and just bring a lot of pleasure to the baby.
Do I need medicine?
At paratrophy the pediatrist can appoint or nominate vitamina complex that is necessary for a particular type of disease. You may also need medications designed to treat allergies, rickets, anemia.
Prevention of disease
Paratrophy in children is treated for a long time. Therefore, one should remember about the prevention of the development of this condition in the baby. Take care of this should be still in pregnancy: the use of healthy food by a woman will significantly reduce the likelihood of problems with excess weight in the child. After the birth of a crumb, it is also important to monitor his diet.
You can not neglect walks in the fresh air. Do not forget about the daily massage, as well as gymnastics. Useful not only for the prevention of paratrophy, but also for improving immunity, removing muscle tone, development of the child's respiratory system is swimming. A grown-up kid should be interested in moving games, physical exercises.
It is important to observe and rest regime, a full sleep is an important condition for preserving and strengthening the health of a growing body.
Interestingly, the described methods of preventionalso help prevent a disease associated with a body weight deficit. Hypotrophy and parathyroidism in children are conditions that arise as a result of eating disorders. Therefore, the use of healthy food and an active lifestyle are the key to the health of both adults and children.
Paratrophy in children has become an acute problem for alldeveloped countries of the world. Overweight child leads to serious health problems in older age, in particular, to obesity. Moreover, the more neglected the disease, the more difficult it is to adjust. Among other things, the habits that have been ingrained since childhood lead to a deterioration of the patient's health with excess weight, the development of concomitant pathologies. At the same time, observance of the elementary rules of diet and mobility allow to reduce practically to zero the risk of paratrophy. Therefore, young parents should pay special attention to these factors and take care of the health of their crumbs before his birth.