Services are often exchanged orsold goods by individuals and legal entities without the participation of monetary funds. This is a barter deal. With the advent of network technologies and modern vehicles, such a system has become global. Most often, people interact through auctions or trade and financial markets.
Already in ancient times, the exchange of goods and serviceswas very popular. The Phoenicians successfully applied this scheme of trade relations with other tribes. The Babylonian state managed to develop a special system, in which barter became not only food, but also weapons for protection and attack.
In the Middle Ages Europeans begantravel around the world to exchange some craft products for others. Colonial Americans instead of muskets received skins of animals and wheat. After the appearance of cash, barter exchange became more organized.
Due to a lack of financial resourcescommodity exchange became popular in the United States during the Great Depression. Almost half of the country had to be involved in this natural process. Citizens often united in special cooperatives, which render mutual assistance to each other.
Main advantages and disadvantages of the process
It is believed that a barter transaction is a fairly profitable operation in the absence of monetary resources. It has the following advantages:
- disposal of goods produced in excess;
- formation of close relations between partners;
- expansion of the sphere of influence;
- The possibility of reducing costs due to the inevitable price increase.
Although the conduct of exchange transactions ispositive process, it should be noted that over time, the practicality of this approach becomes less effective. The most important drawback is the complexity in the selection and correlation of products in the exchange, especially if the interests of the two sides do not quite match.
Why do companies have to do this?
There are five main reasons that make businesses undertake barter.
- Deficiency of working capital. From the ability to make financial transactions depends on the output of the enterprise for the desired products. The absence of such an opportunity entails significant costs.
- The desire to expand or maintain the output of products. The conduct of goods exchange provides an opportunity to avoid a production recession, despite financial constraints.
- The possibility of reducing taxes. The lack of transparency in transactions facilitates the maintenance of informal relations. If necessary, it is possible to hide the flows of goods to be exchanged.
- Increase the ability to survive the enterprise with increasing risks. This primarily refers to the industry, where the likely losses are the most frequent.
- Elimination of the possibility of asset forfeituredebt. Carrying out such operations complicates legal intervention in cases of bankruptcy, since there are no cash resources on the accounts of the enterprise.
Classification of operations
From the above it becomes clear which of theactions can be called a barter deal in the literal sense of the word. However, such operations are not of the same type. There is their classification on different grounds. This is necessary for a clear definition of legal norms.
From the point of view of contractual relations, transactions are divided into four types.
- Counter purchase involves commissioning sales of products and purchasing raw materials for the funds received by another organization.
- Barter rent implies the provision of equipment for a certain time period. The payment is made by the goods made with the help of borrowed technical equipment.
- The counter delivery provides delivery of the ready equipment in exchange for initial materials for it.
- Tolling is a method of receiving payment directly for processing the supplied raw materials.
It is possible to divide the natural exchange also on the lineand multilateral. In the first case, the transaction ends with the acquisition by each party of the desired type of product. In a multilateral transaction, there are numerous manipulations with the participation of various economic entities, until all the necessary goods are received.
Requirements for contracts to be concluded
When there is a natural exchange involvingexpensive products, a special document confirming the procedure for conducting the operation should be used. The agreement specifies the features of the transaction, as well as the rights and obligations of the parties.
Any contract must have:
- number and date of confinement;
- registration in the form of a single document, not counting cases with transactions concluded in accordance with international agreements;
- list of goods or services, prices and terms of delivery, the procedure for making claims in case of non-observance of conditions.
Any barter agreement is established forsubjects of the regime of lasting relations, as a result of which compliance with obligations has a temporary extension. When exchanging goods without a preliminary agreement, unpleasant consequences can occur, which can lead to sufficiently appreciable financial losses.
When a commodity exchange transaction is carried out,immediately before the parties looms the problem concerning the risk of late delivery of goods to a minimum. In this case, it is about fulfilling the real obligations that are typical for all trade transactions. However, in the case of barter, the performance can not be replaced by the payment of the estimated income.
In practice, this problem is solved bythe development of special measures of protection and the imposition of sanctions aimed at fulfilling certain obligations after the violation of certain conditions. Directly in the contract it is possible to specify simultaneity of deliveries or to provide a delay period after which the second counterparty is released from execution of all agreements.
In addition, the conditions of barter can be expanded.
- The contract includes provisions for compensation of possible losses.
- Various ways of obtaining guarantees of performance of obligations are used.
- The alleged risks are insured.
Required options are prescribedresolving of disputable moments. Many disagreements between the parties can be resolved through normal negotiations. If the conflict situation can not be resolved in this way, then it is considered in court.
The order of registration
Since a barter transaction is one of the optionstrade relations between two or more parties, it must be properly framed. This requirement is mandatory for organizations and individuals who engage in external sales and purchase of goods.
The passport of carrying out the foreign trade operation is made out by sending an application to the appropriate authorities. It is necessary to attach to it:
- the original of the concluded contract;
- certificate of state registration;
- copies of constituent documents;
- certificate of registration in the institution of state statistics.
The application must be considered within 21working day. The passport is issued in two copies: one of them is received by a representative of a natural or legal person against a signature, while the other remains directly in the institution itself.
Barter economy within Russia
By the beginning of the XXI century on the territory of our countryan extraordinary situation was formed. Despite the existence of commercial banks, as well as a full-fledged monetary system, barter deals have become widespread. This is slightly surprising for a state with a transition economy.
Because of the popularity of the exchange operations began activelyto develop barter centers in the regions, acting as intermediaries in conducting transactions. They receive applications from organizations located in certain territories. Such a system becomes quite effective in a crisis.
One of the main dilemmas that currently existsnot able to solve many Russian enterprises, is a cash deficit. In such a situation, only a civilized system of barter operations will save the potential and survive difficult times with minimal losses.
Formation of modern barter tradeallows to successfully develop the sphere of information technologies. The total volume of operations is gradually growing, although the demand for certain types of goods is significantly reduced. The number of organizations that survive through the exchange of products is also increasing.
As a conclusion
In any case, business people should understand,which of the actions can be called a barter transaction and what benefit can be derived from it. Such operations can help many entrepreneurs and representatives of large organizations without using financial instruments for economic development. The advantages of commodity exchange are obvious.