All breeds of pigs are divided into three maingroups: sebaceous, meat-sebaceous and meat. Growing the last two varieties costs a little more than the first. In any case, any breed of piglets needs careful care. Meat breeds with excellent productivity indicators, bred in Russia, just like meat and greengroceries, there are several.
From the sebaceous meat pigs are distinguished by the fact that the fatty layer in them is distributed evenly over the carcass. Hence their second name - bacon. Breeds of meat-bearing pigs have:
- elongated body, slightly stretched to the withers;
- long limbs;
- narrow sacrum, back and withers;
- elongated ribs and hams;
- lightened head.
Meat-sebaceous breeds are also used in ourthe country is very popular. Growing them a bit easier than bacon. At the same time from such pigs you can get not only quality meat, but also fat, which is also a valuable product. This group of animals has a second name - universal.
Separation of breeds into meat and meat-fat into some extent conditional. The quality of the carcass of a grown animal depends to a large extent on the characteristics of the diet. Sometimes a bacon pig gets a lot of fat. And vice versa, from greasy - meat.
What breeds of pigs are bred in our country?
In Russia, as in many other countriespeace, pig production is widespread and is one of the traditional types of agricultural activities. The most popular among farmers in this case are such meat species as landrace, early-ripened meat and Estonian bacon.
Also in many farms are engaged in breedinghybrids derived from pig duroc. The Urzhum breed of piglets is also quite widespread in our country. Meat breeds, of course, divorced more. However, these 5 are the most popular. As for meat and sebaceous species, most of them grow large white, Breitovsk and Siberian northern varieties in Russia.
Pig dourocks and their hybrids
This breed was registered in 1883 in the territory of the United States. Its main distinguishing feature is an unusual red-brown color. The Duroc breed has:
- a deep and broad body of moderate length;
- very strong high legs;
- slightly curved profile of the head;
- ears with lowered ends.
Duroc sows under Russian conditions are differentrelative fertility and can bring up to 7-9 piglets. Hybrids of this breed are usually obtained by crossing with a red-bellied pig. In this case, the most valuable is the young F2 of the second generation.
Pigs of landrace breed: features
This species was bred in Denmarkapproximately in the last century. Her parents were large white and lop-eared pigs. The distinctive features of the Landrace breed are: white skin with soft bristles, well-developed dense hams and spinal musculature, long, drooping ears. Its popularity among pig farmers of Landrace breeds was deserved in the first place for endurance, multi-fruit, good weight gain. Breeding them is easier than many other varieties. The fact is that landracees are very resistant to stressful situations.
Early ripening white
These pigs were taken from us in Russia. The breed was registered in 1993. Its distinctive features are:
- very wide body;
- large fleshy hams;
- slightly saggy ears.
Rather early this breed is called becauseTo feed such pigs to slaughter weight can be faster than animals of other varieties. The benefits of these guinea pigs include, among other things, endurance. You can raise early maturing white in any regions of our country.
Animals of this breed were obtained by crossingLandrace, long-eared European, Finnish, German and large white pigs. This species absorbed all the most popular features of its fellow humans. The characteristic features of the Estonian bacon rock are the ears, pink skin, well developed hams and slightly thin bones.
The Estonian bacon swine breed is characterized byunpretentiousness in food, rapid weight gain (up to 330 kg), fertility (up to 12 piglets) and endurance. Some of its weaknesses are the weakness of the pastern and the stump of the sacrum. There are several lines in this breed: the pikker, the siber, the pirate, etc. The Estonian pig, among other things, is often used in hybridization in some regions of our country.
This breed was created in the Kirov region and was registered in 1957. Its main distinguishing features are the following:
- massive, rough bones;
- dry head with an elongated snout;
- deep, long body;
- narrow spin;
- voluminous, prominent belly.
This breed is popular primarily because ofearly ripeness and very good meat qualities. Urzhum pigs are allowed to contain, including pasture technology. Among the advantages of this breed, among other things, include the calm disposition and care of sows in relation to offspring. The average weight of boars of this breed is 310 kg. A sow at a time can bring up to 12 cubs.
Large white pig
Representatives of this breed were brought to Russiain the eighties of the XIX century. However, they did not receive special dissemination at that time. Secondarily, a large white pig in our country began to breed in the 20 years of the last century. For a number of years it was the only factory breed of piglets in Russia. Meat breeds, bred in our country today, of course, much more. However, the large white still remains the most popular.
Its distinctive features are: white suit, strong constitution, a light head with a massive forehead, large ears, a long broad back, well-developed hams and low, correctly placed legs. White breed of pigs is valued primarily for early ripeness. Live weight of adult boars can reach 350 kg. The uterus brings 11-12 piglets at a time.
Breitovskaya meats-greasy rock
This species was bred in Yaroslavlregion. As parents, breeders selected Danish landrace, large white and local breeds. The main distinguishing features of Breit's meat-and-fat pigs are:
- white color;
- large sizes;
- head with a curved profile;
- long drooping ears;
- wide and deep chest;
- muscular back.
The main advantage of this pig is high fertility. One uterus can bring two litters a year for 11-12 piglets.
This breed was withdrawn in the Novosibirsk region. Parents for her were local, not too productive, but well-adapted to the cold climate of the pig, and boars large white. The distinctive features of the Siberian northern are the following: a harmoniously folded body, a strong constitution, a wide back, an elongated sacrum, strong legs, well-developed hams. The pigs of this breed are especially valuable for their fertility (up to 12 piglets), calm disposition and quick weight gain (up to 360 kg).
Features of the content of meat and meat-and-salvial species
Fattening of such animals is made by two main technologies: meat and bacon. Until the age of 2.5-3 months, the daily ration of piglets consists of the following products:
- mixed feed - 1.3 kg;
- potatoes - 250 g;
- return - 1 kg;
- beets - 250 grams.
Further, the grown-up young growth is translated into meat or bacon fattening. Slaughter is usually produced when the weight of the pig reaches 100-120 kg.
Features of meat fattening
This technology of content includes twothe main period. At the preparatory stage, the basis of the diet for meat fattening is green and juicy feed (30%). It can be root crops, melons, legumes of legumes, etc. In the winter, silage and herbal flour can also be used. Protein for every feeding unit in this period should be about 115 g.
The second stage of fattening is based on the dietbecome concentrated feed (85-90%). The most commonly used grain mixtures (wheat, barley, corn, oats). For reasons of economy, bran can also be added. Sometimes in the second stage pigs are fed potatoes. But in this case at least 50% of the diet should be concentrated. At the final stage, from the "menu" of pigs, all additives and products that can worsen the taste of meat (fish, bran, soy, millet) are necessarily excluded.
This content technology makes it possible to obtainvery tasty pork meat with thin fatty interlayers. Piglets for such fattening are selected at the age of 2.5 months. In this case, the boar-makers must be castrated. The daily diet of animals with this method looks like this:
- return and concentrates (barley is mandatory) - 1,5 kg;
- green fodder - 3 kg;
- root crops - 2 kg;
- salt - 20 g.
In the last months of the maintenance of pigs, as in the case of meat fattening, soy, bran, fish, etc. are excluded from the diet.
Fattening pigs to fatty conditions
This technology is often used in growingmeat and sebaceous species. In this case, the pigs are killed after they reach a weight of about 200 kg. For fattening up fatty conditions, take a hundred kilograms of piglets. The basis of their diet in the future are products containing a large number of carbohydrates. It can be beet, maize, potatoes, fodder syrup, etc. Also give concentrates. At the beginning of fattening, wheat and corn are usually used as the latter, millet and barley at the end.
When organizing a farm in the first place, of courseThe same, it is necessary to be defined with what in your concrete case there will be the best breed of pigs. Meat breeds, characterized by excellent productivity, fertility and endurance, there are many. Good care and proper feeding with a competent choice of young animals will make the farm profitable and profitable.