Goryunov's 7.62 mm machine gun (SG-43) is a Soviet rifle automatic weapon of the 1943 model. It is mounted on wheeled vehicles, swivels and armored vehicles.
How to replace "Maxim"?
By the beginning of the Second World the problem of creating weaponssupport infantry at the battalion level - the machine gun - it was not possible to solve. Standing in the arms of the Red Army "Maxim" possessed a number of significant shortcomings, which it was not possible to overcome. The main of them was the impressive weight of the machine gun - in the loaded condition, i.e., filled with water and charged, its weight was 63 kg. Nor did the water cooling of Maxima add comfort, since it is often difficult or even impossible to find water under combat conditions. In addition, debris and bullets easily damaged the casing, which made it unusable.
The original plans to replace the machine gun "Maxim"model DS-39 were not embodied, since the weapon proved to be difficult to manufacture and operate, unreliable at low temperatures and dust. As a result, DS-39 was withdrawn from production.
Modification of SHG
In May 1942, the development of a new machine gun structure under the 7.62-mm cartridge began. It was useful here for SHG, which in 1940 was successfully tested at the factory.
Goryunov's machine gun was developed onKovrov Mechanical Plant Petr Maksimovich Goryunov, his nephew Mikhail, as well as the factory master Vasily Voronkov. According to the first letters of these names - SHG - and the weapon was named.
But the Red Army demanded an easel version, and Goryunov's machine gun was adapted to fulfill new tasks.
After the completion of the factory tests in late 1942The modernized version was manufactured in an amount of 50 pieces, 45 of which were sent to the troops. The results were also positive. After eliminating comments and identified shortcomings in the late spring of 1943, Goryunov's machine gun participated in state trials. The main competitor of SHG was the upgraded DS-43, as well as weapons manufactured in Germany, as seriously considered the option of altering the German MG-34 for the cartridge of the Mosin rifle and its subsequent acceptance into service by the Red Army. However, it turned out that the Soviet rifle cartridge can not be used in it because of the presence of the rim. The machine gun Goryunova many times surpassed trophy samples and DS-43 on such important parameters as the durability and accuracy of fire.
After getting acquainted with the results of the tests Degtyarevpersonally assured Stalin of the superiority of Goryunov's model and the need to adopt it into service. In addition, the designer created for the competitor a new machine, which began to be produced together with a new weapon.
14.05.For 43 years, the State Defense Committee decided to adopt Goryunov's machine gun (photo is given in the article) with a wheeled machine. For its manufacture at the Kovrov Mechanical Plant in two and a half months a separate workshop was built. In the fall of 1943 the first batch of weapons was produced, and in the following year the output was expanded by the capacities of Zlatoust Plant No. 54.
At the same time, the developers Seleznev and Garanin designed a simpler wheeled machine that had better performance when working in difficult conditions.
In total, before the end of the war, more than 80,000 Goryunov machine guns were produced and handed over to the Red Army.
Principle of operation
The weapon uses the energy of the powder gases removed from the stem channel. The latter is blocked by a right-hand skew of the shutter.
During the shot, the flow of propellant gases in partredirects through the stem hole into the gas chamber and presses on the piston, which retracts the bolt frame. Until the bullet exits, the bolt does not move, blocking the barrel and preventing the gas from bursting into the box.
After the bullet flies out of the trunk,The moving parts of the machine gun continue to move backward, compressing the spring. Then the shutter unlocks the stem channel; A cartridge case is removed from the chamber. The battle of metal or canvas tape enters the window of the trunk box. From it are ejected sleeves. With the help of the slider mechanism, the cartridges are fed into the receiver of the tape with the hinged lid, which accelerates the recharge.
If the release hook is pressed, the slide frame under theThe action of the spring rushes forward, not remaining in the extreme rear position. The bolt pushes the cartridge from the window of the trunk box and sends it to the chamber. Movable parts reach the limit position; the gate locks the stem channel. The upper projection of the shutter frame hits the drummer, producing a shot from the rear whisper. Then the process repeats.
The recharge handle protrudes from underneath the control arms and remains stationary while shooting.
Adjustment of automatic weapons is carried outthree-position gas regulator. Air cooling allows 500 rounds of continuous shooting. In normal mode, short bursts of fire are fired up to 30 rounds. The machine gun Goryunova SG-43 has a firing rate of 250-300 rds / min. The replaceable barrel has a flame arrester and a handle, which facilitates its carrying and replacement, the time of which does not exceed 7-8 seconds.
Shooting is done with bullets arr. 1908 and 1930 years., which retain lethal force for the entire duration of the flight at a distance of up to 3800 m. The energy of the steel bullet of 1908 is 3511 J, and 1930-3776 J. The food is produced by metal bands of 250 cartridges (5 x 50), type DS-39 or canvas from "Maxim" for 200 pcs. with right-hand delivery. Although the high feed rate was sometimes accompanied by transverse tearing of the cartridges, they occurred much less frequently than Degtyarev's machine gun.
Sighting devices SG-43 include a whipfront sight and flap. The latter includes a base, a clamp with the whole and a frame with a spring. The frame is marked with two scales. The left is intended for bullets with bullets in 1908 and allows you to set the distance to 2 thousand meters. It is designated by the letter "L" and numbers 0-20. The right scale is intended for a cartridge with a bullet in 1930 and allows you to establish a distance of up to 2.3 thousand meters. It is marked with the letter "T" and numbers 0-23. On the target it is put at risk. For its installation, the rear of the clamp on both sides of the main risk is marked with five divisions of lateral corrections. One mark corresponds to a thousandth range.
Goryunov's machine gun is verified by conductingfiring on the scaled target cut off on the 4th horizontal line, as well as over a rectangle of black color measuring 20x30 cm on a shield 1x1 m white. The range is set at 100 m, the sight is set to 3 on the left scale and bullets with a light bullet are used.
Objectives in the air are monitored byadditionally installed on the "Goryunov" anti-aircraft angle sight, designed for airborne objects at a distance of not more than 1 kilometer, which move at a speed not exceeding 600 km / h. The sight has a front and rear sight and a base. The front is composed of four concentric rings with a radius of 20-80 mm with a pitch of 20 mm, the purpose of which is to select the lead. In addition, the visor in the center has a ring that serves to adjust, as well as a rack. The rear is made up of a ball, a check screw and a stand. Distinctive quality of the sight is the installation of both viewers on the frame, which connects them into a single design, which ensures its constant adjustment: it can be repeatedly removed, folded and installed in place without disturbing the settings.
Application in battle
Goryunov's machine gun went into service in the spring1943 In the rifle battalions of weapons fell in early summer of the same year. It was used to defeat open groups of manpower and means of conducting enemy fire at distances of up to 1 km.
The success of Goryunov in the battles of the final period of the war is due to its light weight: it is 6.5 kg lighter than Maxima, and with a wheeled machine - by 25 kg.
After World War II, the machine gun was modernized andwas renamed into SGM ("M" - modernized). The system of protection against dust and cooling of the barrel was improved, and a new shutter was installed. A tank version of the SSMT appeared.
The main parameters of the machine gun are:
- Weight: 13.5 kg.
- Machine weight: 23,4 kg.
- Length: 1140 mm.
- Barrel length: 720 mm.
- Range of fire (L / T): 2000/2300 m.
- Speed of the bullet (L / T) F 865/800 m / s.
- Rate of fire: 700 rds / min
- Rate of fire: max. 350 rds / min.
SG-43 was widely exported, licenses were issuedfor its production in several countries. In China Goryunov was produced under the name Type 53, in Czechoslovakia - as Vz 43, in Poland (Wz 43) and in South Africa (SS-77).