Among most people, the term organizationalthe structure of the enterprise causes immediately association with a tree-like scheme in which the rectangles are connected by lines to each other. These rectangles on the diagram and display the list of tasks solved at the enterprise, that is, the scheme shows the process of division of labor. That is why the organizational structure of the enterprise is one of the key elements due to which it is possible to achieve high indicators in the efficiency of management and optimization of work processes.
Let's consider some typical schemes of their advantages and disadvantages.
First, with a linear arrangement, the organizational structureThe enterprise, as a rule, represents a hierarchical management structure. Such a structure was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. The meaning and essence of such a system is reduced to controlling the higher levels of subordinates and bringing production to the standardization of management. Hence the functions for coordinating actions, distributing responsibilities among employees and standardizing activities. Among the simplest and most widespread hierarchical structures, one can single out a linear (linearly-functional) structure.
The organizational structure of the linear enterprisetype is the so-called "mine" construction of the administrative process specialized in the subsystems that differ from each other in functionality. And in each such subsystem an additional hierarchy of services (mine) is formed, which permeates the whole structure from top to bottom. Such a system is built on the principle of motivating employees and encouraging them. The evaluation of the indicators of such structures is expressed in the indicators of each service, which characterize the fulfillment of the goals and tasks facing them. With this type of structure, the final result is made up of the results of the entire structure of the services separately.
The organizational structure of a linear type enterprise has a numberadvantages and disadvantages. Among the advantages can be identified a clear system of connections between functions and units with each other, a system of one-man management, speed of subordinate services to indicate the given by the manager. Among the shortcomings we note the following: the absence of a special body (service) that would deal with the issues of strategic planning for the development of the enterprise, an ineffective system of interaction and subsequent responsibility for the result of work with participation in the process of several units, weak flexibility and adaptation of the system to changing conditions in various situations. In addition, the criteria for evaluating the work of the units and the whole structure are different, a large number of intermediate links between the production and the head of the organization, a noticeable overload of top-level managers, the dependence of the entire structure of the mine (service) on the competence of senior managers.
Therefore, according to modern standards, this structure of enterprise production is not very effective for conducting business and is poorly compatible with the requirements of modern management quality philosophy.
Line-HQ Organizational Structureenterprise. Such a scheme is a modernized model of a linear structure. It has in its composition units that can eliminate the lack of strategic planning. To do this, it includes a number of additional links (staffs) that do not themselves make decisions and direct the lower divisions, but are called upon to help the head of this level (level) in planning and analysis matters. Among the merits and demerits, it is similar to linear except for the possibility of deeper planning of production and management. Therefore, if we evaluate such a structure by modern standards, then it will be a good option when transforming the linear structure, in some other way.
In addition to the above, the organizational structure of the enterprise can be of such types: divisional, organic or adaptive structures, brigade (cross-functional) structure.