Those who work in large enterprises in administrative units, for sure, it is clear that such an organizational structure. Individual companies even present their employees to welcome-training. Let's try to figure out what it is.
Definition of concept
First, let's define what the words "aboutorganizational structure of business ».This division of the enterprise into all kinds of departments, subdivisions, workshops with the purpose of providing an orderly process of managing an economic object.
Organizational structure of business implies a clear relationship between all departments of the company, as well as a designated definition of areas of responsibility.
Why do we need
Business structure of the enterprise is designed to ensure the development of the organization as awhole. Its presence allows the responsible link to promptly make a decision, identify the area of responsibility and quickly transfer information to the appropriate structural unit.
Organizational structure of the company's business - this is not something static, it can be enoughoften change, adapting to changes in the economy. This is due to the fact that any ambitious leader seeks to ensure that his company interacts with other organizations as efficiently as possible, and that employees perform their duties in a qualitative way.
How can the structure of the enterprise
The hierarchical structure is aa set of many units, such as sales department, production department, accounting, the main function of which is to ensure the operation of resources.
Changes business structure can undergo in the event that for solvingcertain tasks on the order of the manager are created by the process units that deal with more particular issues. For example, a group of sales managers can be formed that work on individual orders. Such an organizational structure is called matrix, or two-arm. It can look like this:
More about matrix structures
With such a business organization, the process unitsleases resources from the main units in order to fulfill specific tasks. To implement such projects, groups of employees are created, which are allocated by the main divisions. Employees, united in such groups, are subordinate to both the main leader and the process leader.
To avoid misunderstandings between the employee and the two managers an agreement is concluded on the basis of which the resource unit is responsible for the quality of the task realized by the employee.
Business Structure, organized according to the matrix type, has a certain advantage: the presence of clear requirements for process structural units increases the efficiency of the resource unit.
This type is most widely usedorganizations in design companies and where there is a high diversity of business processes. This structure is also useful in that it forms market relations between departments and reduces the number of top and middle managers.
An example of a successful company in which a project structure is used for various types of software products -MicroSoft.
Classification of company strategies
The business structure can also be classified according to the level at which strategically important decisions are made.
It is customary to distinguish three types of strategies:
It is worth noting that to achieve success, allstrategies must be closely interrelated and coordinated, and structural units - interact with mej itself. Next, we will discuss in detail about each of them.
1. Corporate strategy
This is the highest level in this classification within the concept of "structure of business development ». The corporate strategy determines the overall direction of the company's development, the dynamics in its sales activities.One of the most important goals of corporate strategy is to determine the direction of activity within the company and to identify where to invest.
At this level, the following issues are resolved:
1) on the allocation of resources among structural units;
2) changes in the structure of the organization;
3) solution of issues related to merger with external structures.
2. Economic (competitive) strategy
At this level, the development of a businessbehavior of the organization aimed at creating competitive advantages for a particular commodity market. Within the framework of this strategy, pricing policy is determined, it is decided, due to what will prevail over competitors. At this level, a business plan is being developed. In companies with one activity, the corporate and competitive strategies coincide.
3. Functional strategies
The structural divisions of the company are responsible for their development. As a basis for a functional strategy, the corporate and the economic are mandatory.It is designed to ensure effectivefunctioning of the unit within the framework of the business policy of the enterprise. Here it is appropriate to talk about the strategies of the financial unit, the department of personnel management and marketing.
In particular, the main task of the production department may be to increase the quantity / quality of the products. The financial strategy can be aimed at increasing profits and reducing costs.
Business development strategies. Kinds
At the level of corporate strategy, four approaches to the development of the company can be distinguished. Consider them.
1. Limited growth. This strategy is chosen by companies with stable technology. Goals are determined depending on what is achieved at the moment and undergo adjustments if the external conditions change. This is the easiest and least risky way to implement the method.
2. Growth. Most successfully used in rapidly developing industries, where technology often changes. Here we use the method of comparing the indicators of the current period in comparison with the previous one.
3. Reduction. This strategy is characterized by the definition of targets below those achieved in the past period. This method of development is chosen most rarely and is typical for companies where the tendency to decrease in profit is traced and there are no effective solutions for changing the situation.
Within the framework of this strategy, there are:
1) liquidation (the company is no longer able to conduct business);
2) getting the highest possible income in the short term (the business can bring substantial revenue with minimal costs);
3) reduction (the organization parted with one of the business lines / structural unit).
4. Combined strategy. Typical for large businesses (the presence of several industries) and can be a combination of any three strategies.
Structure of small business
Very often it is the beginning entrepreneurs who lose their investment in development and burn out. This is largely due to the fact that the owners of these projects do not pay enough attention to planning.
Structure of business planning both small and large companies, must contain the following items:
1) a summary of the project, its description;
2) information about the participants;
3) description of the product or service that will be presented on the market;
4) the analysis of the market of competitors;
5) sales plan, media plan;
7) risk analysis.
About the benefits of planning
Business Structure, even the smallest one, needs detailed planning for a number of reasons. Consider them.
1. A well-thought-out algorithm of actions and a preliminary analysis of the situation will help to save money and assess the profitability of your project.
2. Planning helps to make the business development process more predictable, to calculate possible difficulties. Presence of the ready algorithm allows to build more correctly the subsequent forecasts.
3. High probability of attracting investments: those who are ready to invest in the development of someone else's business, speak the language of numbers. Only the calculation will help to confirm the profitability of the project.
4. When you make a plan, you get a tool to manage your business.</ span </ p>