Organizational structure of management is a special compositionindependent units or individual posts that perform the management function. This structure is most often depicted in the form of a diagram that shows the relationship and subordination of structural units. In other words, organizational management structure - is a set of functional and specialized units that are linked together in the process of developing, justifying, implementing and making managerial decisions.
Organizational structure of management in many enterprises is built on thisprinciple, which was developed in the early twentieth century. Based on the formulated principles, this structure began to be called a bureaucratic or hierarchical structure. One of the most common types of such a structure is a linear structure, which indicates that a single head should be at the head of the structural unit. The head - individual farmer should have all the powers, and also carry out a unified management of his employees, perform all management functions. In this way, linear organizational structure of management Each subordinate has only one leader, through which all the necessary commands pass. In this case, the leadership itself is subordinated to that leader who stands above his level.
The linear structure, like all other types of structures, has its advantages and advantages. The main advantages are:
- in this type there is a strict observance of mutual relations, directly, within the functions, as well as a clear system in the units that correspond to them.
- provides a clear system of the unit. In this case, the manager is able to keep in his hands all the work and the totality of all the functions that constitute the activities of the unit.
- responsibility is substantially manifested.
- the fast operation of the functional executive divisions to instructions from higher-level units is carried out.
The most significant drawbacks are:
- in this subdivision with a linear structure, operational problems appear, for example, staff turnover.
- there is a very high dependence on the qualifications of the staff, on their business and personal qualities.
- a large number of levels between the work of employees and the manager.
- small flexibility, as well as adaptability to the changed situation.
Individual workers and subdivision of the apparatusmanagement implement the functions of enterprise management activities. In this case, the relationship between them is both economic, social and organizational, and psychological. Such a concept as organizational structure of enterprise management says that here all employees and employeesare subordinate to one leader. The variety of organizational management structures depends on what functional links exist between employees and divisions.
At the moment, there are 3 main management structures - target, linear and functional. Functional organizational management structure, as well as linear, has a full-time manager anddepartments. The linear structure is directed to such work, which is carried out along the line from the very top to the bottom. But the linear management can not independently solve the problems connected with economic, design - technological and supply problems. And in this case, you need a functional guide that ensures the conduct of work.