The modern market puts forward new conditions for the formation of enterprises. In organizations, the most common application of such control systems as:
- linear organizational structure;
Linear Organization Structure is characterized by a vertical control system,when the basic authority is possessed by one person who passes instructions to his deputy, the latter to his own. There are several structural divisions at such enterprises, which are headed by middle managers and who report to the director.
The linear organizational structure of the enterprise has the following advantages:
- clarity and unity of orders;
- consistency in the actions of performers;
- clearly expressed responsibility;
- Simplicity in management, since there is one communication channel;
- efficiency of making and executing decisions;
- the existence of personal responsibility of managers for the final result of the activities of a particular unit.
The linear organizational structure is logically harmonious and definite, but it is not very flexible. Each leader has power, but small opportunities to resolve complex situations.
Scientists stand out such shortcomings, which have a linear organizational structure:
- Presence of high requirements to the manager, who must have special competence;
- lack of links in the development and preparation of management decisions;
- overload with large amounts of information, a lot of contacts with employees;
- the concentration of all power in the hands of a senior manager.
More modern and optimal is the line organizational structure. It includes the availability of specializeddepartments that do not have the right to make decisions and the ability to manage any units, but they must help a specific leader in performing a number of functions. It's about the functions of strategic analysis and planning. Otherwise, the system has the same features as the previous structure.
Advantages of the staff system:
- presence of deeper elaboration of strategic tasks;
- top managers have more free time, as they are not distracted by the solution of current problems;
- there is an opportunity to involve external experts and consultants.
The linear-staff structure has the following drawbacks:
- availability of insufficiently clear distribution of responsibility, since those who prepare the decision will not participate in its implementation;
- tendency to excessive centralization of management.
Linear-functional organizational structure is realized with the help of a certain set of units that specialize in the performance of a number of specific duties. They are necessary in the management system for optimal decision making.
In this structure, a number of functions are assigned toemployees. Specialists of a single profile should be integrated into a structural unit. Thanks to this, the sales, marketing, placement department is formed.
Benefits of the system:
- The presence of high competence of specialists who are responsible for specific functions;
- the release of senior managers from solving special problems;
- formalization, standardization and programming of processes and phenomena.
Disadvantages of the functional structure:
- presence of excessive interest in the implementation of "their" tasks units;
- there are difficulties in maintaining continuous inter-functional linkages;
- complexity of decision making. </ ul </ p>